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Scale 197: "Bekian"

Scale 197: Bekian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

4 (tetratonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 1121


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

1 (unhemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 163


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 4, 1, 5]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<1, 1, 0, 1, 2, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,4,5}
<2> = {5,6,7}
<3> = {7,8,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(0, 2, 17)

Common Triads

There are no common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that can be formed using notes in this scale.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 197 can be rotated to make 3 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 1073
Scale 1073: Gosian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGosian
3rd mode:
Scale 323
Scale 323: Cajian, Ian Ring Music TheoryCajian
4th mode:
Scale 2209
Scale 2209: Nidian, Ian Ring Music TheoryNidian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 163

Scale 163Scale 163: Bapian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBapian


The tetratonic modal family [197, 1073, 323, 2209] (Forte: 4-16) is the complement of the octatonic modal family [943, 1511, 1949, 2519, 2803, 3307, 3449, 3701] (Forte: 8-16)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 197 is 1121

Scale 1121Scale 1121: Guwian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGuwian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 197 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 1121

Scale 1121Scale 1121: Guwian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGuwian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 197       T0I <11,0> 1121
T1 <1,1> 394      T1I <11,1> 2242
T2 <1,2> 788      T2I <11,2> 389
T3 <1,3> 1576      T3I <11,3> 778
T4 <1,4> 3152      T4I <11,4> 1556
T5 <1,5> 2209      T5I <11,5> 3112
T6 <1,6> 323      T6I <11,6> 2129
T7 <1,7> 646      T7I <11,7> 163
T8 <1,8> 1292      T8I <11,8> 326
T9 <1,9> 2584      T9I <11,9> 652
T10 <1,10> 1073      T10I <11,10> 1304
T11 <1,11> 2146      T11I <11,11> 2608
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3137      T0MI <7,0> 71
T1M <5,1> 2179      T1MI <7,1> 142
T2M <5,2> 263      T2MI <7,2> 284
T3M <5,3> 526      T3MI <7,3> 568
T4M <5,4> 1052      T4MI <7,4> 1136
T5M <5,5> 2104      T5MI <7,5> 2272
T6M <5,6> 113      T6MI <7,6> 449
T7M <5,7> 226      T7MI <7,7> 898
T8M <5,8> 452      T8MI <7,8> 1796
T9M <5,9> 904      T9MI <7,9> 3592
T10M <5,10> 1808      T10MI <7,10> 3089
T11M <5,11> 3616      T11MI <7,11> 2083

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 199Scale 199: Raga Nabhomani, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Nabhomani
Scale 193Scale 193: Raga Ongkari, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Ongkari
Scale 195Scale 195: Messiaen Truncated Mode 5, Ian Ring Music TheoryMessiaen Truncated Mode 5
Scale 201Scale 201: Bemian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBemian
Scale 205Scale 205: Bepian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBepian
Scale 213Scale 213: Bitian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBitian
Scale 229Scale 229: Bidian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBidian
Scale 133Scale 133: Suspended Second Triad, Ian Ring Music TheorySuspended Second Triad
Scale 165Scale 165: Genus Primum, Ian Ring Music TheoryGenus Primum
Scale 69Scale 69: Dezian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDezian
Scale 325Scale 325: Messiaen Truncated Mode 6, Ian Ring Music TheoryMessiaen Truncated Mode 6
Scale 453Scale 453: Raditonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaditonic
Scale 709Scale 709: Raga Shri Kalyan, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Shri Kalyan
Scale 1221Scale 1221: Epyritonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpyritonic
Scale 2245Scale 2245: Raga Vaijayanti, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Vaijayanti

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.