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Scale 1043: "Gizian"

Scale 1043: Gizian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

4 (tetratonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 2309


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

1 (unhemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

prime: 77


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 3, 6, 2]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<1, 1, 2, 1, 0, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,3,6}
<2> = {3,4,8,9}
<3> = {6,9,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(4, 3, 18)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Diminished Triadsa♯°{10,1,4}000

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {0}

Since there is only one common triad in this scale, there are no opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 1043 can be rotated to make 3 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 2569
Scale 2569: Pujian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPujian
3rd mode:
Scale 833
Scale 833: Febian, Ian Ring Music TheoryFebian
4th mode:
Scale 77
Scale 77: Alvian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAlvianThis is the prime mode


The prime form of this scale is Scale 77

Scale 77Scale 77: Alvian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAlvian


The tetratonic modal family [1043, 2569, 833, 77] (Forte: 4-12) is the complement of the octatonic modal family [763, 1631, 2009, 2429, 2863, 3479, 3787, 3941] (Forte: 8-12)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 1043 is 2309

Scale 2309Scale 2309: Ocuian, Ian Ring Music TheoryOcuian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 1043 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 2309

Scale 2309Scale 2309: Ocuian, Ian Ring Music TheoryOcuian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 1043       T0I <11,0> 2309
T1 <1,1> 2086      T1I <11,1> 523
T2 <1,2> 77      T2I <11,2> 1046
T3 <1,3> 154      T3I <11,3> 2092
T4 <1,4> 308      T4I <11,4> 89
T5 <1,5> 616      T5I <11,5> 178
T6 <1,6> 1232      T6I <11,6> 356
T7 <1,7> 2464      T7I <11,7> 712
T8 <1,8> 833      T8I <11,8> 1424
T9 <1,9> 1666      T9I <11,9> 2848
T10 <1,10> 3332      T10I <11,10> 1601
T11 <1,11> 2569      T11I <11,11> 3202
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 293      T0MI <7,0> 1169
T1M <5,1> 586      T1MI <7,1> 2338
T2M <5,2> 1172      T2MI <7,2> 581
T3M <5,3> 2344      T3MI <7,3> 1162
T4M <5,4> 593      T4MI <7,4> 2324
T5M <5,5> 1186      T5MI <7,5> 553
T6M <5,6> 2372      T6MI <7,6> 1106
T7M <5,7> 649      T7MI <7,7> 2212
T8M <5,8> 1298      T8MI <7,8> 329
T9M <5,9> 2596      T9MI <7,9> 658
T10M <5,10> 1097      T10MI <7,10> 1316
T11M <5,11> 2194      T11MI <7,11> 2632

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 1041Scale 1041: Hitian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHitian
Scale 1045Scale 1045: Gibian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGibian
Scale 1047Scale 1047: Gician, Ian Ring Music TheoryGician
Scale 1051Scale 1051: Gifian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGifian
Scale 1027Scale 1027: Geqian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGeqian
Scale 1035Scale 1035: Givian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGivian
Scale 1059Scale 1059: Gikian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGikian
Scale 1075Scale 1075: Gotian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGotian
Scale 1107Scale 1107: Mogitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMogitonic
Scale 1171Scale 1171: Raga Manaranjani I, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Manaranjani I
Scale 1299Scale 1299: Aerophitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerophitonic
Scale 1555Scale 1555: Jotian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJotian
Scale 19Scale 19: Acuian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAcuian
Scale 531Scale 531: Degian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDegian
Scale 2067Scale 2067: Movian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMovian
Scale 3091Scale 3091: Tisian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTisian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.