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Scale 1601: "Juwian"

Scale 1601: Juwian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

4 (tetratonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 77


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

1 (unhemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 77


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[6, 3, 1, 2]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<1, 1, 2, 1, 0, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,3,6}
<2> = {3,4,8,9}
<3> = {6,9,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(4, 3, 18)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Diminished Triadsf♯°{6,9,0}000

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {10}

Since there is only one common triad in this scale, there are no opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 1601 can be rotated to make 3 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 89
Scale 89: Aggian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAggian
3rd mode:
Scale 523
Scale 523: Debian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDebian
4th mode:
Scale 2309
Scale 2309: Ocuian, Ian Ring Music TheoryOcuian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 77

Scale 77Scale 77: Alvian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAlvian


The tetratonic modal family [1601, 89, 523, 2309] (Forte: 4-12) is the complement of the octatonic modal family [763, 1631, 2009, 2429, 2863, 3479, 3787, 3941] (Forte: 8-12)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 1601 is 77

Scale 77Scale 77: Alvian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAlvian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 1601 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 77

Scale 77Scale 77: Alvian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAlvian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 1601       T0I <11,0> 77
T1 <1,1> 3202      T1I <11,1> 154
T2 <1,2> 2309      T2I <11,2> 308
T3 <1,3> 523      T3I <11,3> 616
T4 <1,4> 1046      T4I <11,4> 1232
T5 <1,5> 2092      T5I <11,5> 2464
T6 <1,6> 89      T6I <11,6> 833
T7 <1,7> 178      T7I <11,7> 1666
T8 <1,8> 356      T8I <11,8> 3332
T9 <1,9> 712      T9I <11,9> 2569
T10 <1,10> 1424      T10I <11,10> 1043
T11 <1,11> 2848      T11I <11,11> 2086
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 581      T0MI <7,0> 1097
T1M <5,1> 1162      T1MI <7,1> 2194
T2M <5,2> 2324      T2MI <7,2> 293
T3M <5,3> 553      T3MI <7,3> 586
T4M <5,4> 1106      T4MI <7,4> 1172
T5M <5,5> 2212      T5MI <7,5> 2344
T6M <5,6> 329      T6MI <7,6> 593
T7M <5,7> 658      T7MI <7,7> 1186
T8M <5,8> 1316      T8MI <7,8> 2372
T9M <5,9> 2632      T9MI <7,9> 649
T10M <5,10> 1169      T10MI <7,10> 1298
T11M <5,11> 2338      T11MI <7,11> 2596

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 1603Scale 1603: Juxian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJuxian
Scale 1605Scale 1605: Zanitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZanitonic
Scale 1609Scale 1609: Thyritonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryThyritonic
Scale 1617Scale 1617: Phronitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhronitonic
Scale 1633Scale 1633: Kapian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKapian
Scale 1537Scale 1537: Jijian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJijian
Scale 1569Scale 1569: Jocian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJocian
Scale 1665Scale 1665: Kejian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKejian
Scale 1729Scale 1729: Kowian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKowian
Scale 1857Scale 1857: Liwian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLiwian
Scale 1089Scale 1089: Gocian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGocian
Scale 1345Scale 1345: Iskian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIskian
Scale 577Scale 577: Illian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIllian
Scale 2625Scale 2625, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3649Scale 3649: Wupian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWupian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.