The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 1045: "Gibian"

Scale 1045: Gibian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

4 (tetratonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.



A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

0 (anhemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 85


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

generator: 2
origin: 10

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 2, 6, 2]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<0, 3, 0, 2, 0, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {2,6}
<2> = {4,8}
<3> = {6,10}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(4, 1, 10)


This scale has a generator of 2, originating on 10.

Common Triads

There are no common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that can be formed using notes in this scale.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 1045 can be rotated to make 3 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 1285
Scale 1285: Husian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHusian
3rd mode:
Scale 1345
Scale 1345: Iskian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIskian
4th mode:
Scale 85
Scale 85: Segian, Ian Ring Music TheorySegianThis is the prime mode


The prime form of this scale is Scale 85

Scale 85Scale 85: Segian, Ian Ring Music TheorySegian


The tetratonic modal family [1045, 1285, 1345, 85] (Forte: 4-21) is the complement of the octatonic modal family [1375, 1405, 1525, 2005, 2735, 3415, 3755, 3925] (Forte: 8-21)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 1045 is 1285

Scale 1285Scale 1285: Husian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHusian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 1045       T0I <11,0> 1285
T1 <1,1> 2090      T1I <11,1> 2570
T2 <1,2> 85      T2I <11,2> 1045
T3 <1,3> 170      T3I <11,3> 2090
T4 <1,4> 340      T4I <11,4> 85
T5 <1,5> 680      T5I <11,5> 170
T6 <1,6> 1360      T6I <11,6> 340
T7 <1,7> 2720      T7I <11,7> 680
T8 <1,8> 1345      T8I <11,8> 1360
T9 <1,9> 2690      T9I <11,9> 2720
T10 <1,10> 1285      T10I <11,10> 1345
T11 <1,11> 2570      T11I <11,11> 2690
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1285      T0MI <7,0> 1045
T1M <5,1> 2570      T1MI <7,1> 2090
T2M <5,2> 1045       T2MI <7,2> 85
T3M <5,3> 2090      T3MI <7,3> 170
T4M <5,4> 85      T4MI <7,4> 340
T5M <5,5> 170      T5MI <7,5> 680
T6M <5,6> 340      T6MI <7,6> 1360
T7M <5,7> 680      T7MI <7,7> 2720
T8M <5,8> 1360      T8MI <7,8> 1345
T9M <5,9> 2720      T9MI <7,9> 2690
T10M <5,10> 1345      T10MI <7,10> 1285
T11M <5,11> 2690      T11MI <7,11> 2570

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T2I, T2M, T0MI

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 1047Scale 1047: Gician, Ian Ring Music TheoryGician
Scale 1041Scale 1041: Hitian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHitian
Scale 1043Scale 1043: Gizian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGizian
Scale 1049Scale 1049: Gidian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGidian
Scale 1053Scale 1053: Gigian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGigian
Scale 1029Scale 1029: Ampian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAmpian
Scale 1037Scale 1037: Warao Tetratonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryWarao Tetratonic
Scale 1061Scale 1061: Gilian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGilian
Scale 1077Scale 1077: Govian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGovian
Scale 1109Scale 1109: Kataditonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKataditonic
Scale 1173Scale 1173: Dominant Pentatonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDominant Pentatonic
Scale 1301Scale 1301: Koditonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKoditonic
Scale 1557Scale 1557: Jovian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJovian
Scale 21Scale 21: Aclian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAclian
Scale 533Scale 533: Dehian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDehian
Scale 2069Scale 2069: Mowian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMowian
Scale 3093Scale 3093: Buqian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBuqian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.