The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 3093: "Buqian"

Scale 3093: Buqian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

5 (pentatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 1287


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

2 (dihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

1 (uncohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 87


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 2, 6, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<2, 3, 1, 2, 1, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,6}
<2> = {2,3,4,7,8}
<3> = {4,5,8,9,10}
<4> = {6,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(14, 7, 36)

Common Triads

There are no common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that can be formed using notes in this scale.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3093 can be rotated to make 4 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 1797
Scale 1797: Lalian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLalian
3rd mode:
Scale 1473
Scale 1473: Javian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJavian
4th mode:
Scale 87
Scale 87: Asrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAsrianThis is the prime mode
5th mode:
Scale 2091
Scale 2091: Mukian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMukian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 87

Scale 87Scale 87: Asrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAsrian


The pentatonic modal family [3093, 1797, 1473, 87, 2091] (Forte: 5-9) is the complement of the heptatonic modal family [351, 1521, 1989, 2223, 3159, 3627, 3861] (Forte: 7-9)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3093 is 1287

Scale 1287Scale 1287: Hutian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHutian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 3093 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 1287

Scale 1287Scale 1287: Hutian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHutian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 3093       T0I <11,0> 1287
T1 <1,1> 2091      T1I <11,1> 2574
T2 <1,2> 87      T2I <11,2> 1053
T3 <1,3> 174      T3I <11,3> 2106
T4 <1,4> 348      T4I <11,4> 117
T5 <1,5> 696      T5I <11,5> 234
T6 <1,6> 1392      T6I <11,6> 468
T7 <1,7> 2784      T7I <11,7> 936
T8 <1,8> 1473      T8I <11,8> 1872
T9 <1,9> 2946      T9I <11,9> 3744
T10 <1,10> 1797      T10I <11,10> 3393
T11 <1,11> 3594      T11I <11,11> 2691
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1413      T0MI <7,0> 1077
T1M <5,1> 2826      T1MI <7,1> 2154
T2M <5,2> 1557      T2MI <7,2> 213
T3M <5,3> 3114      T3MI <7,3> 426
T4M <5,4> 2133      T4MI <7,4> 852
T5M <5,5> 171      T5MI <7,5> 1704
T6M <5,6> 342      T6MI <7,6> 3408
T7M <5,7> 684      T7MI <7,7> 2721
T8M <5,8> 1368      T8MI <7,8> 1347
T9M <5,9> 2736      T9MI <7,9> 2694
T10M <5,10> 1377      T10MI <7,10> 1293
T11M <5,11> 2754      T11MI <7,11> 2586

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 3095Scale 3095: Tivian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTivian
Scale 3089Scale 3089: Tirian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTirian
Scale 3091Scale 3091: Tisian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTisian
Scale 3097Scale 3097: Tiwian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTiwian
Scale 3101Scale 3101: Tiyian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTiyian
Scale 3077Scale 3077: Tekian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTekian
Scale 3085Scale 3085: Tepian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTepian
Scale 3109Scale 3109: Tidian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTidian
Scale 3125Scale 3125: Tonian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTonian
Scale 3157Scale 3157: Zyptimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZyptimic
Scale 3221Scale 3221: Bycrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryBycrimic
Scale 3349Scale 3349: Aeolocrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeolocrimic
Scale 3605Scale 3605: Olkian, Ian Ring Music TheoryOlkian
Scale 2069Scale 2069: Mowian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMowian
Scale 2581Scale 2581: Raga Neroshta, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Neroshta
Scale 1045Scale 1045: Gibian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGibian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.