The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 1591: "Rodian"

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Zeitler
Rodian
Dozenal
JUQian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,2,4,5,9,10}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-Z37

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

[1]

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

no

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

4 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

1 (uncohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

3

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number includes the scale itself, so the number is usually the same as its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are fewer modes.

7

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

no
prime: 443

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 2, 1, 4, 1, 2]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<4, 3, 4, 5, 4, 1>

Proportional Saturation Vector

First described by Michael Buchler (2001), this is a vector showing the prominence of intervals relative to the maximum and minimum possible for the scale's cardinality. A saturation of 0 means the interval is present minimally, a saturation of 1 means it is the maximum possible.

<0.5, 0.25, 0.5, 0.667, 0.5, 0>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p4m5n4s3d4t

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,4}
<2> = {2,3,5}
<3> = {4,6,7}
<4> = {5,6,8}
<5> = {7,9,10}
<6> = {8,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2.571

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.299

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.803

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Centre of Gravity Distance

When tones of a scale are imagined as physical objects of equal weight arranged around a unit circle, this is the distance from the center of the circle to the center of gravity for all the tones. A perfectly balanced scale has a CoG distance of zero.

0.247436

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

[2]

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(34, 21, 84)

Coherence Quotient

The Coherence Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of coherence failures (ambiguity or contradiction) in the scale, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A high coherence quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a maximally complex scale.

0.607

Sameness Quotient

The Sameness Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of differences in the heteromorphic profile, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A higher quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a scale with maximum complexity.

0.333

Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony.

Generator

This scale has no generator.

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

A{9,1,4}331.5
A♯{10,2,5}242
am{9,0,4}242
a♯m{10,1,5}331.5

view full size

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter 4 2 no C♯+ am, A♯

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 1591 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

 2nd mode:Scale 2843 Sorian 3rd mode:Scale 3469 Monian 4th mode:Scale 1891 Thalian 5th mode:Scale 2993 Stythian 6th mode:Scale 443 Kothian This is the prime mode 7th mode:Scale 2269 Pygian

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 443

 Scale 443 Kothian

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [1591, 2843, 3469, 1891, 2993, 443, 2269] (Forte: 7-Z37) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [313, 551, 913, 2323, 3209] (Forte: 5-Z37)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 1591 is 3469

 Scale 3469 Monian

Interval Matrix

Each row is a generic interval, cells contain the specific size of each generic. Useful for identifying contradictions and ambiguities.

Hierarchizability

Based on the work of Niels Verosky, hierarchizability is the measure of repeated patterns with "place-finding" remainder bits, applied recursively to the binary representation of a scale. For a full explanation, read Niels' paper, Hierarchizability as a Predictor of Scale Candidacy. The variable k is the maximum number of remainders allowed at each level of recursion, for them to count as an increment of hierarchizability. A high hierarchizability score is a good indicator of scale candidacy, ie a measure of usefulness for producing pleasing music. There is a strong correlation between scales with maximal hierarchizability and scales that are in popular use in a variety of world musical traditions.

kHierarchizabilityBreakdown PatternDiagram
11111011000110
21111011000110
331([1][1]0)([1][1]0)00([1][1]0)
43([1][1]0[1])1000([1][1]0[1])
53([1][1]0[1])1000([1][1]0[1])

Center of Gravity

If tones of the scale are imagined as identical physical objects spaced around a unit circle, the center of gravity is the point where the scale is balanced.

Position with origin in the center (0.123718, -0.214286) 0.247436 30 100

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b. A note about the multipliers: multiplying by 1 changes nothing, multiplying by 11 produces the same result as inversion. 5 is the only non-degenerate multiplier, with the multiplier 7 producing the inverse of 5.

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 1591       T0I <11,0> 3469
T1 <1,1> 3182      T1I <11,1> 2843
T2 <1,2> 2269      T2I <11,2> 1591
T3 <1,3> 443      T3I <11,3> 3182
T4 <1,4> 886      T4I <11,4> 2269
T5 <1,5> 1772      T5I <11,5> 443
T6 <1,6> 3544      T6I <11,6> 886
T7 <1,7> 2993      T7I <11,7> 1772
T8 <1,8> 1891      T8I <11,8> 3544
T9 <1,9> 3782      T9I <11,9> 2993
T10 <1,10> 3469      T10I <11,10> 1891
T11 <1,11> 2843      T11I <11,11> 3782
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1831      T0MI <7,0> 3229
T1M <5,1> 3662      T1MI <7,1> 2363
T2M <5,2> 3229      T2MI <7,2> 631
T3M <5,3> 2363      T3MI <7,3> 1262
T4M <5,4> 631      T4MI <7,4> 2524
T5M <5,5> 1262      T5MI <7,5> 953
T6M <5,6> 2524      T6MI <7,6> 1906
T7M <5,7> 953      T7MI <7,7> 3812
T8M <5,8> 1906      T8MI <7,8> 3529
T9M <5,9> 3812      T9MI <7,9> 2963
T10M <5,10> 3529      T10MI <7,10> 1831
T11M <5,11> 2963      T11MI <7,11> 3662

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T2I

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

 Scale 1589 Raga Rageshri Scale 1587 Raga Rudra Pancama Scale 1595 Dacrian Scale 1599 Pocryllic Scale 1575 Zycrimic Scale 1583 Salian Scale 1559 JOWian Scale 1623 Lothian Scale 1655 Katygyllic Scale 1719 Lyryllic Scale 1847 Thacryllic Scale 1079 GOWian Scale 1335 Elephant Scale Scale 567 Aeoladimic Scale 2615 Thoptian Scale 3639 Paptyllic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow and Lilypond, graph visualization by Graphviz, audio by TiMIDIty and FFMPEG. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (DOI, Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission.

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with naming the Carnatic ragas. Thanks to Niels Verosky for collaborating on the Hierarchizability diagrams. Thanks to u/howaboot for inventing the Center of Gravity metrics.