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Scale 1537: "Jijian"

Scale 1537: Jijian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

3 (tritonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 13


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

1 (unhemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 11


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[9, 1, 2]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,9}
<2> = {3,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(1, 0, 6)

Common Triads

There are no common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that can be formed using notes in this scale.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 1537 can be rotated to make 2 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 11
Scale 11: Ankian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAnkianThis is the prime mode
3rd mode:
Scale 2053
Scale 2053: Powian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPowian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 11

Scale 11Scale 11: Ankian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAnkian


The tritonic modal family [1537, 11, 2053] (Forte: 3-2) is the complement of the enneatonic modal family [767, 2041, 2431, 3263, 3679, 3887, 3991, 4043, 4069] (Forte: 9-2)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 1537 is 13

Scale 13Scale 13: Dijian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDijian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 1537 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 13

Scale 13Scale 13: Dijian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDijian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 1537       T0I <11,0> 13
T1 <1,1> 3074      T1I <11,1> 26
T2 <1,2> 2053      T2I <11,2> 52
T3 <1,3> 11      T3I <11,3> 104
T4 <1,4> 22      T4I <11,4> 208
T5 <1,5> 44      T5I <11,5> 416
T6 <1,6> 88      T6I <11,6> 832
T7 <1,7> 176      T7I <11,7> 1664
T8 <1,8> 352      T8I <11,8> 3328
T9 <1,9> 704      T9I <11,9> 2561
T10 <1,10> 1408      T10I <11,10> 1027
T11 <1,11> 2816      T11I <11,11> 2054
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 517      T0MI <7,0> 1033
T1M <5,1> 1034      T1MI <7,1> 2066
T2M <5,2> 2068      T2MI <7,2> 37
T3M <5,3> 41      T3MI <7,3> 74
T4M <5,4> 82      T4MI <7,4> 148
T5M <5,5> 164      T5MI <7,5> 296
T6M <5,6> 328      T6MI <7,6> 592
T7M <5,7> 656      T7MI <7,7> 1184
T8M <5,8> 1312      T8MI <7,8> 2368
T9M <5,9> 2624      T9MI <7,9> 641
T10M <5,10> 1153      T10MI <7,10> 1282
T11M <5,11> 2306      T11MI <7,11> 2564

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 1539Scale 1539: Jikian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJikian
Scale 1541Scale 1541: Jilian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJilian
Scale 1545Scale 1545: Jonian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJonian
Scale 1553Scale 1553: Josian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJosian
Scale 1569Scale 1569: Jocian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJocian
Scale 1601Scale 1601: Juwian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJuwian
Scale 1665Scale 1665: Kejian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKejian
Scale 1793Scale 1793: Lajian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLajian
Scale 1025Scale 1025: Warao Ditonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryWarao Ditonic
Scale 1281Scale 1281: Huqian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHuqian
Scale 513Scale 513: Major Sixth Ditone, Ian Ring Music TheoryMajor Sixth Ditone
Scale 2561Scale 2561: Podian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPodian
Scale 3585Scale 3585: Tetratonic Chromatic Descending, Ian Ring Music TheoryTetratonic Chromatic Descending

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.