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Scale 3105: "Tibian"

Scale 3105: Tibian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

4 (tetratonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.



A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

2 (dihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

1 (uncohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 135


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[5, 5, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<2, 1, 0, 0, 2, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,5}
<2> = {2,6,10}
<3> = {7,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(4, 0, 13)

Common Triads

There are no common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that can be formed using notes in this scale.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3105 can be rotated to make 3 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 225
Scale 225: Bibian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBibian
3rd mode:
Scale 135
Scale 135: Armian, Ian Ring Music TheoryArmianThis is the prime mode
4th mode:
Scale 2115
Scale 2115: Muyian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMuyian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 135

Scale 135Scale 135: Armian, Ian Ring Music TheoryArmian


The tetratonic modal family [3105, 225, 135, 2115] (Forte: 4-6) is the complement of the octatonic modal family [495, 1935, 2295, 3015, 3195, 3555, 3645, 3825] (Forte: 8-6)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3105 is 135

Scale 135Scale 135: Armian, Ian Ring Music TheoryArmian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 3105       T0I <11,0> 135
T1 <1,1> 2115      T1I <11,1> 270
T2 <1,2> 135      T2I <11,2> 540
T3 <1,3> 270      T3I <11,3> 1080
T4 <1,4> 540      T4I <11,4> 2160
T5 <1,5> 1080      T5I <11,5> 225
T6 <1,6> 2160      T6I <11,6> 450
T7 <1,7> 225      T7I <11,7> 900
T8 <1,8> 450      T8I <11,8> 1800
T9 <1,9> 900      T9I <11,9> 3600
T10 <1,10> 1800      T10I <11,10> 3105
T11 <1,11> 3600      T11I <11,11> 2115
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 135      T0MI <7,0> 3105
T1M <5,1> 270      T1MI <7,1> 2115
T2M <5,2> 540      T2MI <7,2> 135
T3M <5,3> 1080      T3MI <7,3> 270
T4M <5,4> 2160      T4MI <7,4> 540
T5M <5,5> 225      T5MI <7,5> 1080
T6M <5,6> 450      T6MI <7,6> 2160
T7M <5,7> 900      T7MI <7,7> 225
T8M <5,8> 1800      T8MI <7,8> 450
T9M <5,9> 3600      T9MI <7,9> 900
T10M <5,10> 3105       T10MI <7,10> 1800
T11M <5,11> 2115      T11MI <7,11> 3600

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T10I, T10M, T0MI

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 3107Scale 3107: Tician, Ian Ring Music TheoryTician
Scale 3109Scale 3109: Tidian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTidian
Scale 3113Scale 3113: Tigian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTigian
Scale 3121Scale 3121: Tilian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTilian
Scale 3073Scale 3073: Tritonic Chromatic Descending, Ian Ring Music TheoryTritonic Chromatic Descending
Scale 3089Scale 3089: Tirian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTirian
Scale 3137Scale 3137, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3169Scale 3169: Tupian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTupian
Scale 3233Scale 3233: Unbian, Ian Ring Music TheoryUnbian
Scale 3361Scale 3361: Vatian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVatian
Scale 3617Scale 3617: Wovian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWovian
Scale 2081Scale 2081: Modian, Ian Ring Music TheoryModian
Scale 2593Scale 2593: Puxian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPuxian
Scale 1057Scale 1057: Sansagari, Ian Ring Music TheorySansagari

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.