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Scale 3129: "TOQian"

Scale 3129: TOQian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).



Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

6 (hexatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.



A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

4 (multihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

2 (dicohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

prime: 231


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[3, 1, 1, 5, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<4, 2, 1, 2, 4, 2>

Proportional Saturation Vector

First described by Michael Buchler (2001), this is a vector showing the prominence of intervals relative to the maximum and minimum possible for the scale's cardinality. A saturation of 0 means the interval is present minimally, a saturation of 1 means it is the maximum possible.

<0.8, 0.333, 0.2, 0, 0.8, 0.667>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,3,5}
<2> = {2,4,6}
<3> = {5,7}
<4> = {6,8,10}
<5> = {7,9,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(24, 10, 51)

Coherence Quotient

The Coherence Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of coherence failures (ambiguity or contradiction) in the scale, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A high coherence quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a maximally complex scale.


Sameness Quotient

The Sameness Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of differences in the heteromorphic profile, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A higher quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a scale with maximum complexity.



This scale has no generator.

Common Triads

There are no common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that can be formed using notes in this scale.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3129 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 903
Scale 903: FOSian, Ian Ring Music TheoryFOSian
3rd mode:
Scale 2499
Scale 2499: PIRian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPIRian
4th mode:
Scale 3297
Scale 3297: ULLian, Ian Ring Music TheoryULLian
5th mode:
Scale 231
Scale 231: BIFian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBIFianThis is the prime mode
6th mode:
Scale 2163
Scale 2163: NEBian, Ian Ring Music TheoryNEBian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 231

Scale 231Scale 231: BIFian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBIFian


The hexatonic modal family [3129, 903, 2499, 3297, 231, 2163] (Forte: 6-Z6) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [399, 483, 2247, 2289, 3171, 3633] (Forte: 6-Z38)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3129 is 903

Scale 903Scale 903: FOSian, Ian Ring Music TheoryFOSian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 3129       T0I <11,0> 903
T1 <1,1> 2163      T1I <11,1> 1806
T2 <1,2> 231      T2I <11,2> 3612
T3 <1,3> 462      T3I <11,3> 3129
T4 <1,4> 924      T4I <11,4> 2163
T5 <1,5> 1848      T5I <11,5> 231
T6 <1,6> 3696      T6I <11,6> 462
T7 <1,7> 3297      T7I <11,7> 924
T8 <1,8> 2499      T8I <11,8> 1848
T9 <1,9> 903      T9I <11,9> 3696
T10 <1,10> 1806      T10I <11,10> 3297
T11 <1,11> 3612      T11I <11,11> 2499
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 399      T0MI <7,0> 3633
T1M <5,1> 798      T1MI <7,1> 3171
T2M <5,2> 1596      T2MI <7,2> 2247
T3M <5,3> 3192      T3MI <7,3> 399
T4M <5,4> 2289      T4MI <7,4> 798
T5M <5,5> 483      T5MI <7,5> 1596
T6M <5,6> 966      T6MI <7,6> 3192
T7M <5,7> 1932      T7MI <7,7> 2289
T8M <5,8> 3864      T8MI <7,8> 483
T9M <5,9> 3633      T9MI <7,9> 966
T10M <5,10> 3171      T10MI <7,10> 1932
T11M <5,11> 2247      T11MI <7,11> 3864

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T3I

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 3131Scale 3131: TORian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTORian
Scale 3133Scale 3133: TOSian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTOSian
Scale 3121Scale 3121: TILian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTILian
Scale 3125Scale 3125: TONian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTONian
Scale 3113Scale 3113: TIGian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTIGian
Scale 3097Scale 3097: TIWian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTIWian
Scale 3161Scale 3161: Kodimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKodimic
Scale 3193Scale 3193: Zathian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZathian
Scale 3257Scale 3257: Mela Calanata, Ian Ring Music TheoryMela Calanata
Scale 3385Scale 3385: Chromatic Phrygian, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Phrygian
Scale 3641Scale 3641: Thocrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryThocrian
Scale 2105Scale 2105: RIGian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRIGian
Scale 2617Scale 2617: Pylimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPylimic
Scale 1081Scale 1081: GOXian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGOXian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow and Lilypond, graph visualization by Graphviz, audio by TiMIDIty and FFMPEG. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.