 The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about...

# Scale 393: "Lothic" ### Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

### Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Zeitler
Lothic
Dozenal
Cizian

## Analysis

#### Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

4 (tetratonic)

#### Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,3,7,8}

#### Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

4-20

#### Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

#### Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

[1.5]

#### Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

#### Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

no

#### Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

1 (unhemitonic)

#### Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)

#### Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

2

#### Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

3

#### Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

no
prime: 291

#### Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

#### Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.

no

#### Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[3, 4, 1, 4]

#### Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<1, 0, 1, 2, 2, 0>

#### Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p2m2nd

#### Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,3,4}
<2> = {5,7}
<3> = {8,9,11}

#### Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2

#### Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

#### Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

#### Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

1.616

#### Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.396

#### Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

#### Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

#### Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



#### Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Strictly Proper

#### Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(0, 0, 14)

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter 1 1 yes

## Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 393 can be rotated to make 3 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

 2nd mode:Scale 561 Phratic 3rd mode:Scale 291 Raga Lavangi This is the prime mode 4th mode:Scale 2193 Major Seventh

## Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 291

 Scale 291 Raga Lavangi

## Complement

The tetratonic modal family [393, 561, 291, 2193] (Forte: 4-20) is the complement of the octatonic modal family [951, 1767, 1851, 2523, 2931, 2973, 3309, 3513] (Forte: 8-20)

## Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 393 is 561

 Scale 561 Phratic

## Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 393       T0I <11,0> 561
T1 <1,1> 786      T1I <11,1> 1122
T2 <1,2> 1572      T2I <11,2> 2244
T3 <1,3> 3144      T3I <11,3> 393
T4 <1,4> 2193      T4I <11,4> 786
T5 <1,5> 291      T5I <11,5> 1572
T6 <1,6> 582      T6I <11,6> 3144
T7 <1,7> 1164      T7I <11,7> 2193
T8 <1,8> 2328      T8I <11,8> 291
T9 <1,9> 561      T9I <11,9> 582
T10 <1,10> 1122      T10I <11,10> 1164
T11 <1,11> 2244      T11I <11,11> 2328
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 2073      T0MI <7,0> 771
T1M <5,1> 51      T1MI <7,1> 1542
T2M <5,2> 102      T2MI <7,2> 3084
T3M <5,3> 204      T3MI <7,3> 2073
T4M <5,4> 408      T4MI <7,4> 51
T5M <5,5> 816      T5MI <7,5> 102
T6M <5,6> 1632      T6MI <7,6> 204
T7M <5,7> 3264      T7MI <7,7> 408
T8M <5,8> 2433      T8MI <7,8> 816
T9M <5,9> 771      T9MI <7,9> 1632
T10M <5,10> 1542      T10MI <7,10> 3264
T11M <5,11> 3084      T11MI <7,11> 2433

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T3I

## Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

 Scale 395 Phrygian Pentatonic Scale 397 Aeolian Pentatonic Scale 385 Civian Scale 389 Cixian Scale 401 Epogic Scale 409 Laritonic Scale 425 Raga Kokil Pancham Scale 457 Staptitonic Scale 265 Boxian Scale 329 Mynic 2 Scale 137 Ute Tritonic Scale 649 Byptic Scale 905 Bylitonic Scale 1417 Raga Shailaja Scale 2441 Kyritonic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.