 The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about...

# Scale 493: "Rygian" ### Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

### Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Zeitler
Rygian
Dozenal
Dajian

## Analysis

#### Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

#### Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,2,3,5,6,7,8}

#### Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-Z36

#### Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

#### Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

#### Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

#### Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 1777

#### Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

4 (multihemitonic)

#### Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

2 (dicohemitonic)

#### Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

3

#### Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

#### Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 367

#### Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

#### Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

#### Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 4]

#### Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<4, 4, 4, 3, 4, 2>

#### Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p4m3n4s4d4t2

#### Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,4}
<2> = {2,3,5,6}
<3> = {3,4,5,6,7}
<4> = {5,6,7,8,9}
<5> = {6,7,9,10}
<6> = {8,10,11}

#### Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

3.143

#### Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

#### Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

#### Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.299

#### Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.803

#### Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

#### Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

#### Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

#### Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

#### Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(38, 34, 100)

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

fm{5,8,0}231.4
{2,5,8}142

view full size

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter 4 2 no G♯ c°, d°

## Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 493 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

 2nd mode:Scale 1147 Epynian 3rd mode:Scale 2621 Ionogian 4th mode:Scale 1679 Kydian 5th mode:Scale 2887 Gaptian 6th mode:Scale 3491 Tharian 7th mode:Scale 3793 Aeopian

## Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 367

 Scale 367 Aerodian

## Complement

The heptatonic modal family [493, 1147, 2621, 1679, 2887, 3491, 3793] (Forte: 7-Z36) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [151, 737, 1801, 2123, 3109] (Forte: 5-Z36)

## Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 493 is 1777

 Scale 1777 Saptian

## Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 493 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 1777

 Scale 1777 Saptian

## Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 493       T0I <11,0> 1777
T1 <1,1> 986      T1I <11,1> 3554
T2 <1,2> 1972      T2I <11,2> 3013
T3 <1,3> 3944      T3I <11,3> 1931
T4 <1,4> 3793      T4I <11,4> 3862
T5 <1,5> 3491      T5I <11,5> 3629
T6 <1,6> 2887      T6I <11,6> 3163
T7 <1,7> 1679      T7I <11,7> 2231
T8 <1,8> 3358      T8I <11,8> 367
T9 <1,9> 2621      T9I <11,9> 734
T10 <1,10> 1147      T10I <11,10> 1468
T11 <1,11> 2294      T11I <11,11> 2936
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3163      T0MI <7,0> 2887
T1M <5,1> 2231      T1MI <7,1> 1679
T2M <5,2> 367      T2MI <7,2> 3358
T3M <5,3> 734      T3MI <7,3> 2621
T4M <5,4> 1468      T4MI <7,4> 1147
T5M <5,5> 2936      T5MI <7,5> 2294
T6M <5,6> 1777      T6MI <7,6> 493
T7M <5,7> 3554      T7MI <7,7> 986
T8M <5,8> 3013      T8MI <7,8> 1972
T9M <5,9> 1931      T9MI <7,9> 3944
T10M <5,10> 3862      T10MI <7,10> 3793
T11M <5,11> 3629      T11MI <7,11> 3491

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T6MI

## Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

 Scale 495 Bocryllic Scale 489 Phrathimic Scale 491 Aeolyrian Scale 485 Stoptimic Scale 501 Katylian Scale 509 Ionothyllic Scale 461 Raga Syamalam Scale 477 Stacrian Scale 429 Koptimic Scale 365 Marimic Scale 237 Bijian Scale 749 Aeologian Scale 1005 Radyllic Scale 1517 Sagyllic Scale 2541 Algerian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.