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Scale 1927: "Lunian"

Scale 1927: Lunian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 3133


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

5 (multihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

3 (tricohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 239


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 5, 1, 1, 1, 2]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<5, 4, 3, 3, 4, 2>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,5}
<2> = {2,3,6}
<3> = {3,4,7}
<4> = {5,8,9}
<5> = {6,9,10}
<6> = {7,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(55, 20, 84)

Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Minor Triadsgm{7,10,2}110.5
Diminished Triads{7,10,1}110.5

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {0,8,9}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 1927. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 gm gm g°->gm

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.



Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 1927 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 3011
Scale 3011, Ian Ring Music Theory
3rd mode:
Scale 3553
Scale 3553: Wehian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWehian
4th mode:
Scale 239
Scale 239: Bikian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBikianThis is the prime mode
5th mode:
Scale 2167
Scale 2167: Nedian, Ian Ring Music TheoryNedian
6th mode:
Scale 3131
Scale 3131: Torian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTorian
7th mode:
Scale 3613
Scale 3613: Wosian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWosian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 239

Scale 239Scale 239: Bikian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBikian


The heptatonic modal family [1927, 3011, 3553, 239, 2167, 3131, 3613] (Forte: 7-5) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [143, 481, 2119, 3107, 3601] (Forte: 5-5)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 1927 is 3133

Scale 3133Scale 3133: Tosian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTosian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 1927 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 3133

Scale 3133Scale 3133: Tosian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTosian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 1927       T0I <11,0> 3133
T1 <1,1> 3854      T1I <11,1> 2171
T2 <1,2> 3613      T2I <11,2> 247
T3 <1,3> 3131      T3I <11,3> 494
T4 <1,4> 2167      T4I <11,4> 988
T5 <1,5> 239      T5I <11,5> 1976
T6 <1,6> 478      T6I <11,6> 3952
T7 <1,7> 956      T7I <11,7> 3809
T8 <1,8> 1912      T8I <11,8> 3523
T9 <1,9> 3824      T9I <11,9> 2951
T10 <1,10> 3553      T10I <11,10> 1807
T11 <1,11> 3011      T11I <11,11> 3614
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3637      T0MI <7,0> 1423
T1M <5,1> 3179      T1MI <7,1> 2846
T2M <5,2> 2263      T2MI <7,2> 1597
T3M <5,3> 431      T3MI <7,3> 3194
T4M <5,4> 862      T4MI <7,4> 2293
T5M <5,5> 1724      T5MI <7,5> 491
T6M <5,6> 3448      T6MI <7,6> 982
T7M <5,7> 2801      T7MI <7,7> 1964
T8M <5,8> 1507      T8MI <7,8> 3928
T9M <5,9> 3014      T9MI <7,9> 3761
T10M <5,10> 1933      T10MI <7,10> 3427
T11M <5,11> 3866      T11MI <7,11> 2759

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 1925Scale 1925: Lumian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLumian
Scale 1923Scale 1923: Lulian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLulian
Scale 1931Scale 1931: Stogian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStogian
Scale 1935Scale 1935: Mycryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMycryllic
Scale 1943Scale 1943: Luxian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLuxian
Scale 1959Scale 1959: Katolyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatolyllic
Scale 1991Scale 1991: Phryptyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhryptyllic
Scale 1799Scale 1799: Lamian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLamian
Scale 1863Scale 1863: Pycrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPycrian
Scale 1671Scale 1671: Kemian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKemian
Scale 1415Scale 1415: Impian, Ian Ring Music TheoryImpian
Scale 903Scale 903: Fosian, Ian Ring Music TheoryFosian
Scale 2951Scale 2951: Silian, Ian Ring Music TheorySilian
Scale 3975Scale 3975: Octatonic Chromatic 6, Ian Ring Music TheoryOctatonic Chromatic 6

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.