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Scale 1923: "Lulian"

Scale 1923: Lulian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

6 (hexatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 2109


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

4 (multihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

2 (dicohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 111


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 6, 1, 1, 1, 2]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<4, 3, 3, 2, 2, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,6}
<2> = {2,3,7}
<3> = {3,4,8,9}
<4> = {5,9,10}
<5> = {6,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(34, 9, 55)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Diminished Triads{7,10,1}000

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {0,8,9}

Since there is only one common triad in this scale, there are no opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 1923 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 3009
Scale 3009: Suvian, Ian Ring Music TheorySuvian
3rd mode:
Scale 111
Scale 111: Aroian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAroianThis is the prime mode
4th mode:
Scale 2103
Scale 2103: Murian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMurian
5th mode:
Scale 3099
Scale 3099: Tixian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTixian
6th mode:
Scale 3597
Scale 3597: Wijian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWijian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 111

Scale 111Scale 111: Aroian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAroian


The hexatonic modal family [1923, 3009, 111, 2103, 3099, 3597] (Forte: 6-Z3) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [159, 993, 2127, 3111, 3603, 3849] (Forte: 6-Z36)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 1923 is 2109

Scale 2109Scale 2109: Muvian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMuvian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 1923 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 2109

Scale 2109Scale 2109: Muvian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMuvian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 1923       T0I <11,0> 2109
T1 <1,1> 3846      T1I <11,1> 123
T2 <1,2> 3597      T2I <11,2> 246
T3 <1,3> 3099      T3I <11,3> 492
T4 <1,4> 2103      T4I <11,4> 984
T5 <1,5> 111      T5I <11,5> 1968
T6 <1,6> 222      T6I <11,6> 3936
T7 <1,7> 444      T7I <11,7> 3777
T8 <1,8> 888      T8I <11,8> 3459
T9 <1,9> 1776      T9I <11,9> 2823
T10 <1,10> 3552      T10I <11,10> 1551
T11 <1,11> 3009      T11I <11,11> 3102
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 2613      T0MI <7,0> 1419
T1M <5,1> 1131      T1MI <7,1> 2838
T2M <5,2> 2262      T2MI <7,2> 1581
T3M <5,3> 429      T3MI <7,3> 3162
T4M <5,4> 858      T4MI <7,4> 2229
T5M <5,5> 1716      T5MI <7,5> 363
T6M <5,6> 3432      T6MI <7,6> 726
T7M <5,7> 2769      T7MI <7,7> 1452
T8M <5,8> 1443      T8MI <7,8> 2904
T9M <5,9> 2886      T9MI <7,9> 1713
T10M <5,10> 1677      T10MI <7,10> 3426
T11M <5,11> 3354      T11MI <7,11> 2757

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 1921Scale 1921: Lukian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLukian
Scale 1925Scale 1925: Lumian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLumian
Scale 1927Scale 1927: Lunian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLunian
Scale 1931Scale 1931: Stogian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStogian
Scale 1939Scale 1939: Dathian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDathian
Scale 1955Scale 1955: Sonian, Ian Ring Music TheorySonian
Scale 1987Scale 1987: Mexian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMexian
Scale 1795Scale 1795: Lakian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLakian
Scale 1859Scale 1859: Lixian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLixian
Scale 1667Scale 1667: Kekian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKekian
Scale 1411Scale 1411: Iroian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIroian
Scale 899Scale 899: Foqian, Ian Ring Music TheoryFoqian
Scale 2947Scale 2947: Sijian, Ian Ring Music TheorySijian
Scale 3971Scale 3971: Heptatonic Chromatic 6, Ian Ring Music TheoryHeptatonic Chromatic 6

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.