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Scale 2695: "RAKian"

Scale 2695: RAKian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).



Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

6 (hexatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 3115


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

3 (trihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

2 (dicohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

prime: 175


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 5, 2, 2, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<3, 4, 2, 2, 3, 1>

Proportional Saturation Vector

First described by Michael Buchler (2001), this is a vector showing the prominence of intervals relative to the maximum and minimum possible for the scale's cardinality. A saturation of 0 means the interval is present minimally, a saturation of 1 means it is the maximum possible.

<0.6, 0.667, 0.4, 0, 0.6, 0.333>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,5}
<2> = {2,3,4,6,7}
<3> = {3,4,5,7,8,9}
<4> = {5,6,8,9,10}
<5> = {7,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(29, 19, 65)

Coherence Quotient

The Coherence Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of coherence failures (ambiguity or contradiction) in the scale, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A high coherence quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a maximally complex scale.


Sameness Quotient

The Sameness Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of differences in the heteromorphic profile, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A higher quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a scale with maximum complexity.



This scale has no generator.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsG{7,11,2}000

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {0,1,9}

Since there is only one common triad in this scale, there are no opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 2695 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 3395
Scale 3395: VEPian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVEPian
3rd mode:
Scale 3745
Scale 3745: XUVian, Ian Ring Music TheoryXUVian
4th mode:
Scale 245
Scale 245: Raga Dipak, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Dipak
5th mode:
Scale 1085
Scale 1085: GOZian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGOZian
6th mode:
Scale 1295
Scale 1295: HUYian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHUYian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 175

Scale 175Scale 175: BEWian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBEWian


The hexatonic modal family [2695, 3395, 3745, 245, 1085, 1295] (Forte: 6-9) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [175, 1505, 1925, 2135, 3115, 3605] (Forte: 6-9)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 2695 is 3115

Scale 3115Scale 3115: TIHian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTIHian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 2695 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 3115

Scale 3115Scale 3115: TIHian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTIHian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 2695       T0I <11,0> 3115
T1 <1,1> 1295      T1I <11,1> 2135
T2 <1,2> 2590      T2I <11,2> 175
T3 <1,3> 1085      T3I <11,3> 350
T4 <1,4> 2170      T4I <11,4> 700
T5 <1,5> 245      T5I <11,5> 1400
T6 <1,6> 490      T6I <11,6> 2800
T7 <1,7> 980      T7I <11,7> 1505
T8 <1,8> 1960      T8I <11,8> 3010
T9 <1,9> 3920      T9I <11,9> 1925
T10 <1,10> 3745      T10I <11,10> 3850
T11 <1,11> 3395      T11I <11,11> 3605
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3745      T0MI <7,0> 175
T1M <5,1> 3395      T1MI <7,1> 350
T2M <5,2> 2695       T2MI <7,2> 700
T3M <5,3> 1295      T3MI <7,3> 1400
T4M <5,4> 2590      T4MI <7,4> 2800
T5M <5,5> 1085      T5MI <7,5> 1505
T6M <5,6> 2170      T6MI <7,6> 3010
T7M <5,7> 245      T7MI <7,7> 1925
T8M <5,8> 490      T8MI <7,8> 3850
T9M <5,9> 980      T9MI <7,9> 3605
T10M <5,10> 1960      T10MI <7,10> 3115
T11M <5,11> 3920      T11MI <7,11> 2135

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T2M

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 2693Scale 2693: Lahuzu 5 Tone Type 3, Ian Ring Music TheoryLahuzu 5 Tone Type 3
Scale 2691Scale 2691: RAHian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRAHian
Scale 2699Scale 2699: Sythimic, Ian Ring Music TheorySythimic
Scale 2703Scale 2703: Galian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGalian
Scale 2711Scale 2711: Stolian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStolian
Scale 2727Scale 2727: Mela Manavati, Ian Ring Music TheoryMela Manavati
Scale 2759Scale 2759: Mela Pavani, Ian Ring Music TheoryMela Pavani
Scale 2567Scale 2567: PUHian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPUHian
Scale 2631Scale 2631: Macrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMacrimic
Scale 2823Scale 2823: RULian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRULian
Scale 2951Scale 2951: SILian, Ian Ring Music TheorySILian
Scale 2183Scale 2183: NENian, Ian Ring Music TheoryNENian
Scale 2439Scale 2439: PAGian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPAGian
Scale 3207Scale 3207: UCOian, Ian Ring Music TheoryUCOian
Scale 3719Scale 3719: XOFian, Ian Ring Music TheoryXOFian
Scale 647Scale 647: DUZian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDUZian
Scale 1671Scale 1671: KEMian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKEMian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow and Lilypond, graph visualization by Graphviz, audio by TiMIDIty and FFMPEG. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.