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Scale 245: "Raga Dipak"

Scale 245: Raga Dipak, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Raga Dipak



Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

6 (hexatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 1505


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

3 (trihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

2 (dicohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 175


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 5]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<3, 4, 2, 2, 3, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,5}
<2> = {2,3,4,6,7}
<3> = {3,4,5,7,8,9}
<4> = {5,6,8,9,10}
<5> = {7,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(29, 19, 65)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsC{0,4,7}000

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {2,5,6}

Since there is only one common triad in this scale, there are no opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 245 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 1085
Scale 1085: Gozian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGozian
3rd mode:
Scale 1295
Scale 1295: Huyian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHuyian
4th mode:
Scale 2695
Scale 2695: Rakian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRakian
5th mode:
Scale 3395
Scale 3395: Vepian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVepian
6th mode:
Scale 3745
Scale 3745: Xuvian, Ian Ring Music TheoryXuvian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 175

Scale 175Scale 175: Bewian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBewian


The hexatonic modal family [245, 1085, 1295, 2695, 3395, 3745] (Forte: 6-9) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [175, 1505, 1925, 2135, 3115, 3605] (Forte: 6-9)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 245 is 1505

Scale 1505Scale 1505: Jepian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJepian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 245 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 1505

Scale 1505Scale 1505: Jepian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJepian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 245       T0I <11,0> 1505
T1 <1,1> 490      T1I <11,1> 3010
T2 <1,2> 980      T2I <11,2> 1925
T3 <1,3> 1960      T3I <11,3> 3850
T4 <1,4> 3920      T4I <11,4> 3605
T5 <1,5> 3745      T5I <11,5> 3115
T6 <1,6> 3395      T6I <11,6> 2135
T7 <1,7> 2695      T7I <11,7> 175
T8 <1,8> 1295      T8I <11,8> 350
T9 <1,9> 2590      T9I <11,9> 700
T10 <1,10> 1085      T10I <11,10> 1400
T11 <1,11> 2170      T11I <11,11> 2800
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3395      T0MI <7,0> 2135
T1M <5,1> 2695      T1MI <7,1> 175
T2M <5,2> 1295      T2MI <7,2> 350
T3M <5,3> 2590      T3MI <7,3> 700
T4M <5,4> 1085      T4MI <7,4> 1400
T5M <5,5> 2170      T5MI <7,5> 2800
T6M <5,6> 245       T6MI <7,6> 1505
T7M <5,7> 490      T7MI <7,7> 3010
T8M <5,8> 980      T8MI <7,8> 1925
T9M <5,9> 1960      T9MI <7,9> 3850
T10M <5,10> 3920      T10MI <7,10> 3605
T11M <5,11> 3745      T11MI <7,11> 3115

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T6M

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 247Scale 247: Bopian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBopian
Scale 241Scale 241: Bilian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBilian
Scale 243Scale 243: Bomian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBomian
Scale 249Scale 249: Boqian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBoqian
Scale 253Scale 253: Bosian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBosian
Scale 229Scale 229: Bidian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBidian
Scale 237Scale 237: Bijian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBijian
Scale 213Scale 213: Bitian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBitian
Scale 181Scale 181: Raga Budhamanohari, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Budhamanohari
Scale 117Scale 117: Anbian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAnbian
Scale 373Scale 373: Epagimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpagimic
Scale 501Scale 501: Katylian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatylian
Scale 757Scale 757: Ionyptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonyptian
Scale 1269Scale 1269: Katythian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatythian
Scale 2293Scale 2293: Gorian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGorian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.