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Scale 3335: "Vadian"

Scale 3335: Vadian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

6 (hexatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 3095


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

4 (multihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

3 (tricohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 95


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 6, 2, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<4, 4, 3, 2, 1, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,6}
<2> = {2,3,7,8}
<3> = {3,4,8,9}
<4> = {4,5,9,10}
<5> = {6,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(34, 13, 55)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Diminished Triadsg♯°{8,11,2}000

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {0,1,10}

Since there is only one common triad in this scale, there are no opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3335 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 3715
Scale 3715: Xician, Ian Ring Music TheoryXician
3rd mode:
Scale 3905
Scale 3905: Yusian, Ian Ring Music TheoryYusian
4th mode:
Scale 125
Scale 125: Atwian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAtwian
5th mode:
Scale 1055
Scale 1055: Gihian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGihian
6th mode:
Scale 2575
Scale 2575: Pumian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPumian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 95

Scale 95Scale 95: Arkian, Ian Ring Music TheoryArkian


The hexatonic modal family [3335, 3715, 3905, 125, 1055, 2575] (Forte: 6-2) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [95, 1985, 2095, 3095, 3595, 3845] (Forte: 6-2)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3335 is 3095

Scale 3095Scale 3095: Tivian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTivian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 3335 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 3095

Scale 3095Scale 3095: Tivian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTivian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 3335       T0I <11,0> 3095
T1 <1,1> 2575      T1I <11,1> 2095
T2 <1,2> 1055      T2I <11,2> 95
T3 <1,3> 2110      T3I <11,3> 190
T4 <1,4> 125      T4I <11,4> 380
T5 <1,5> 250      T5I <11,5> 760
T6 <1,6> 500      T6I <11,6> 1520
T7 <1,7> 1000      T7I <11,7> 3040
T8 <1,8> 2000      T8I <11,8> 1985
T9 <1,9> 4000      T9I <11,9> 3970
T10 <1,10> 3905      T10I <11,10> 3845
T11 <1,11> 3715      T11I <11,11> 3595
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1205      T0MI <7,0> 1445
T1M <5,1> 2410      T1MI <7,1> 2890
T2M <5,2> 725      T2MI <7,2> 1685
T3M <5,3> 1450      T3MI <7,3> 3370
T4M <5,4> 2900      T4MI <7,4> 2645
T5M <5,5> 1705      T5MI <7,5> 1195
T6M <5,6> 3410      T6MI <7,6> 2390
T7M <5,7> 2725      T7MI <7,7> 685
T8M <5,8> 1355      T8MI <7,8> 1370
T9M <5,9> 2710      T9MI <7,9> 2740
T10M <5,10> 1325      T10MI <7,10> 1385
T11M <5,11> 2650      T11MI <7,11> 2770

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 3333Scale 3333: Vacian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVacian
Scale 3331Scale 3331: Vabian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVabian
Scale 3339Scale 3339: Smuian, Ian Ring Music TheorySmuian
Scale 3343Scale 3343: Vajian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVajian
Scale 3351Scale 3351: Crater Scale, Ian Ring Music TheoryCrater Scale
Scale 3367Scale 3367: Moptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMoptian
Scale 3399Scale 3399: Zonian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZonian
Scale 3463Scale 3463: Vofian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVofian
Scale 3079Scale 3079: Pentatonic Chromatic 3, Ian Ring Music TheoryPentatonic Chromatic 3
Scale 3207Scale 3207: Ucoian, Ian Ring Music TheoryUcoian
Scale 3591Scale 3591: Wifian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWifian
Scale 3847Scale 3847: Heptatonic Chromatic 5, Ian Ring Music TheoryHeptatonic Chromatic 5
Scale 2311Scale 2311: Raga Kumarapriya, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Kumarapriya
Scale 2823Scale 2823: Rulian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRulian
Scale 1287Scale 1287: Hutian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHutian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.