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Scale 3399: "Zonian"

Scale 3399: Zonian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Zeitler
Zonian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,2,6,8,10,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-9

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 3159

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

4 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

3 (tricohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

4

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 351

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Formula

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 4, 2, 2, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<4, 5, 3, 4, 3, 2>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p3m4n3s5d4t2

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,4}
<2> = {2,3,4,5,6}
<3> = {3,4,5,6,7,8}
<4> = {4,5,6,7,8,9}
<5> = {6,7,8,9,10}
<6> = {8,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

3.429

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.299

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.803

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(46, 40, 104)

Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsF♯{6,10,1}131.5
Minor Triadsbm{11,2,6}221
Augmented TriadsD+{2,6,10}221
Diminished Triadsg♯°{8,11,2}131.5

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {0}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 3399. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 D+ D+ F# F# D+->F# bm bm D+->bm g#° g#° g#°->bm

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter3
Radius2
Self-Centeredno
Central VerticesD+, bm
Peripheral VerticesF♯, g♯°

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3399 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 3747
Scale 3747: Myrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMyrian
3rd mode:
Scale 3921
Scale 3921: Pythian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPythian
4th mode:
Scale 501
Scale 501: Katylian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatylian
5th mode:
Scale 1149
Scale 1149: Bydian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBydian
6th mode:
Scale 1311
Scale 1311: Bynian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBynian
7th mode:
Scale 2703
Scale 2703: Galian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGalian

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 351

Scale 351Scale 351: Epanian, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpanian

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [3399, 3747, 3921, 501, 1149, 1311, 2703] (Forte: 7-9) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [87, 1473, 1797, 2091, 3093] (Forte: 5-9)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3399 is 3159

Scale 3159Scale 3159: Stocrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStocrian

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 3399 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 3159

Scale 3159Scale 3159: Stocrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStocrian

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 3399       T0I <11,0> 3159
T1 <1,1> 2703      T1I <11,1> 2223
T2 <1,2> 1311      T2I <11,2> 351
T3 <1,3> 2622      T3I <11,3> 702
T4 <1,4> 1149      T4I <11,4> 1404
T5 <1,5> 2298      T5I <11,5> 2808
T6 <1,6> 501      T6I <11,6> 1521
T7 <1,7> 1002      T7I <11,7> 3042
T8 <1,8> 2004      T8I <11,8> 1989
T9 <1,9> 4008      T9I <11,9> 3978
T10 <1,10> 3921      T10I <11,10> 3861
T11 <1,11> 3747      T11I <11,11> 3627
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1269      T0MI <7,0> 1509
T1M <5,1> 2538      T1MI <7,1> 3018
T2M <5,2> 981      T2MI <7,2> 1941
T3M <5,3> 1962      T3MI <7,3> 3882
T4M <5,4> 3924      T4MI <7,4> 3669
T5M <5,5> 3753      T5MI <7,5> 3243
T6M <5,6> 3411      T6MI <7,6> 2391
T7M <5,7> 2727      T7MI <7,7> 687
T8M <5,8> 1359      T8MI <7,8> 1374
T9M <5,9> 2718      T9MI <7,9> 2748
T10M <5,10> 1341      T10MI <7,10> 1401
T11M <5,11> 2682      T11MI <7,11> 2802

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 3397Scale 3397: Sydimic, Ian Ring Music TheorySydimic
Scale 3395Scale 3395, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3403Scale 3403: Bylian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBylian
Scale 3407Scale 3407: Katocryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatocryllic
Scale 3415Scale 3415: Ionaptyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonaptyllic
Scale 3431Scale 3431: Zyptyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZyptyllic
Scale 3335Scale 3335, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3367Scale 3367: Moptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMoptian
Scale 3463Scale 3463, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3527Scale 3527: Ronyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryRonyllic
Scale 3143Scale 3143: Polimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPolimic
Scale 3271Scale 3271: Mela Raghupriya, Ian Ring Music TheoryMela Raghupriya
Scale 3655Scale 3655: Mathian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMathian
Scale 3911Scale 3911: Katyryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatyryllic
Scale 2375Scale 2375: Aeolaptimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeolaptimic
Scale 2887Scale 2887: Gaptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGaptian
Scale 1351Scale 1351: Aeraptimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeraptimic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy.