 The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about... ### Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

### Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Zeitler
Dozenal
Ibrian

## Analysis

#### Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

6 (hexatonic)

#### Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,2,3,5,8,10}

#### Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

6-33

#### Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

#### Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

#### Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

#### Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 1685

#### Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

1 (unhemitonic)

#### Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)

#### Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

2

#### Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

5

#### Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 685

#### Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

#### Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

#### Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 1, 2, 3, 2, 2]

#### Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<1, 4, 3, 2, 4, 1>

#### Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p4m2n3s4dt

#### Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,3}
<2> = {3,4,5}
<3> = {5,6,7}
<4> = {7,8,9}
<5> = {9,10,11}

#### Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

1.667

#### Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

#### Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

#### Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.482

#### Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.932

#### Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

#### Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

#### Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

#### Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Proper

#### Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(0, 12, 54)

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

A♯{10,2,5}131.5

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter 3 2 no d°, fm G♯, A♯

Also known as Bi-Triadic Hexatonics (a term coined by mDecks), and related to Generic Modality Compression (a method for guitar by Mick Goodrick and Tim Miller), these are two common triads that when combined use all the tones in this scale.

There is 1 way that this hexatonic scale can be split into two common triads.

 Major: {8, 0, 3}Major: {10, 2, 5}

## Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 1325 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

 2nd mode:Scale 1355 Raga Bhavani 3rd mode:Scale 2725 Raga Nagagandhari 4th mode:Scale 1705 Raga Manohari 5th mode:Scale 725 Raga Yamuna Kalyani 6th mode:Scale 1205 Raga Siva Kambhoji

## Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 685

 Scale 685 Raga Suddha Bangala

## Complement

The hexatonic modal family [1325, 1355, 2725, 1705, 725, 1205] (Forte: 6-33) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [685, 1195, 1385, 1445, 1685, 2645] (Forte: 6-33)

## Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 1325 is 1685

 Scale 1685 Zeracrimic

## Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 1325 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 1685

 Scale 1685 Zeracrimic

## Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 1325       T0I <11,0> 1685
T1 <1,1> 2650      T1I <11,1> 3370
T2 <1,2> 1205      T2I <11,2> 2645
T3 <1,3> 2410      T3I <11,3> 1195
T4 <1,4> 725      T4I <11,4> 2390
T5 <1,5> 1450      T5I <11,5> 685
T6 <1,6> 2900      T6I <11,6> 1370
T7 <1,7> 1705      T7I <11,7> 2740
T8 <1,8> 3410      T8I <11,8> 1385
T9 <1,9> 2725      T9I <11,9> 2770
T10 <1,10> 1355      T10I <11,10> 1445
T11 <1,11> 2710      T11I <11,11> 2890
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1055      T0MI <7,0> 3845
T1M <5,1> 2110      T1MI <7,1> 3595
T2M <5,2> 125      T2MI <7,2> 3095
T3M <5,3> 250      T3MI <7,3> 2095
T4M <5,4> 500      T4MI <7,4> 95
T5M <5,5> 1000      T5MI <7,5> 190
T6M <5,6> 2000      T6MI <7,6> 380
T7M <5,7> 4000      T7MI <7,7> 760
T8M <5,8> 3905      T8MI <7,8> 1520
T9M <5,9> 3715      T9MI <7,9> 3040
T10M <5,10> 3335      T10MI <7,10> 1985
T11M <5,11> 2575      T11MI <7,11> 3970

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

## Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

 Scale 1327 Zalian Scale 1321 Blues Minor Scale 1323 Ritsu Scale 1317 Chaio Scale 1333 Lyptimic Scale 1341 Madian Scale 1293 Huxian Scale 1309 Pogimic Scale 1357 Takemitsu Linea Mode 2 Scale 1389 Minor Locrian Scale 1453 Aeolian Scale 1069 Goqian Scale 1197 Minor Hexatonic Scale 1581 Raga Bagesri Scale 1837 Dalian Scale 301 Raga Audav Tukhari Scale 813 Larimic Scale 2349 Raga Ghantana Scale 3373 Lodian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.