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Scale 3497: "Phrolian"

Scale 3497: Phrolian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Zeitler
Phrolian
Dozenal
Vuzian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,3,5,7,8,10,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-27

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 695

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

3 (trihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

1 (uncohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

2

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 695

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[3, 2, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<3, 4, 4, 4, 5, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p5m4n4s4d3t

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,3}
<2> = {2,3,4,5}
<3> = {4,5,6,7}
<4> = {5,6,7,8}
<5> = {7,8,9,10}
<6> = {9,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2.286

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.549

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.967

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(9, 35, 98)

Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsD♯{3,7,10}142.14
G♯{8,0,3}331.43
Minor Triadscm{0,3,7}231.57
fm{5,8,0}241.86
g♯m{8,11,3}321.29
Augmented TriadsD♯+{3,7,11}331.43
Diminished Triads{5,8,11}231.71
Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 3497. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 cm cm D#+ D#+ cm->D#+ G# G# cm->G# D# D# D#->D#+ g#m g#m D#+->g#m fm fm f°->fm f°->g#m fm->G# g#m->G#

view full size

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter4
Radius2
Self-Centeredno
Central Verticesg♯m
Peripheral VerticesD♯, fm

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3497 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 949
Scale 949: Mela Mararanjani, Ian Ring Music TheoryMela Mararanjani
3rd mode:
Scale 1261
Scale 1261: Modified Blues, Ian Ring Music TheoryModified Blues
4th mode:
Scale 1339
Scale 1339: Kycrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKycrian
5th mode:
Scale 2717
Scale 2717: Epygian, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpygian
6th mode:
Scale 1703
Scale 1703: Mela Vanaspati, Ian Ring Music TheoryMela Vanaspati
7th mode:
Scale 2899
Scale 2899: Kagian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKagian

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 695

Scale 695Scale 695: Sarian, Ian Ring Music TheorySarian

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [3497, 949, 1261, 1339, 2717, 1703, 2899] (Forte: 7-27) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [299, 689, 1417, 1573, 2197] (Forte: 5-27)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3497 is 695

Scale 695Scale 695: Sarian, Ian Ring Music TheorySarian

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 3497 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 695

Scale 695Scale 695: Sarian, Ian Ring Music TheorySarian

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 3497       T0I <11,0> 695
T1 <1,1> 2899      T1I <11,1> 1390
T2 <1,2> 1703      T2I <11,2> 2780
T3 <1,3> 3406      T3I <11,3> 1465
T4 <1,4> 2717      T4I <11,4> 2930
T5 <1,5> 1339      T5I <11,5> 1765
T6 <1,6> 2678      T6I <11,6> 3530
T7 <1,7> 1261      T7I <11,7> 2965
T8 <1,8> 2522      T8I <11,8> 1835
T9 <1,9> 949      T9I <11,9> 3670
T10 <1,10> 1898      T10I <11,10> 3245
T11 <1,11> 3796      T11I <11,11> 2395
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 2207      T0MI <7,0> 3875
T1M <5,1> 319      T1MI <7,1> 3655
T2M <5,2> 638      T2MI <7,2> 3215
T3M <5,3> 1276      T3MI <7,3> 2335
T4M <5,4> 2552      T4MI <7,4> 575
T5M <5,5> 1009      T5MI <7,5> 1150
T6M <5,6> 2018      T6MI <7,6> 2300
T7M <5,7> 4036      T7MI <7,7> 505
T8M <5,8> 3977      T8MI <7,8> 1010
T9M <5,9> 3859      T9MI <7,9> 2020
T10M <5,10> 3623      T10MI <7,10> 4040
T11M <5,11> 3151      T11MI <7,11> 3985

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 3499Scale 3499: Hamel, Ian Ring Music TheoryHamel
Scale 3501Scale 3501: Maqam Nahawand, Ian Ring Music TheoryMaqam Nahawand
Scale 3489Scale 3489: Vuvian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVuvian
Scale 3493Scale 3493: Rathian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRathian
Scale 3505Scale 3505: Stygian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStygian
Scale 3513Scale 3513: Dydyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDydyllic
Scale 3465Scale 3465: Katathimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatathimic
Scale 3481Scale 3481: Katathian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatathian
Scale 3529Scale 3529: Stalian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStalian
Scale 3561Scale 3561: Pothyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPothyllic
Scale 3369Scale 3369: Mixolimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMixolimic
Scale 3433Scale 3433: Thonian, Ian Ring Music TheoryThonian
Scale 3241Scale 3241: Dalimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDalimic
Scale 3753Scale 3753: Phraptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhraptian
Scale 4009Scale 4009: Phranyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhranyllic
Scale 2473Scale 2473: Raga Takka, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Takka
Scale 2985Scale 2985: Epacrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpacrian
Scale 1449Scale 1449: Raga Gopikavasantam, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Gopikavasantam

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.