 The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about...

# Scale 319: "Epodian" ### Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

### Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Zeitler
Epodian
Dozenal
Cagian

## Analysis

#### Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

#### Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,2,3,4,5,8}

#### Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-3

#### Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

#### Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

#### Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

#### Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 3985

#### Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

5 (multihemitonic)

#### Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

4 (multicohemitonic)

#### Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

4

#### Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

#### Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

yes

#### Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

#### Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

#### Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 4]

#### Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<5, 4, 4, 4, 3, 1>

#### Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p3m4n4s4d5t

#### Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,3,4}
<2> = {2,4,5,7}
<3> = {3,5,6,8}
<4> = {4,6,7,9}
<5> = {5,7,8,10}
<6> = {8,9,11}

#### Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

3.714

#### Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

#### Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

#### Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.183

#### Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.734

#### Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

#### Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

#### Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

#### Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

#### Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(67, 23, 86)

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

G♯{8,0,3}142
fm{5,8,0}221.33

view full size

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter 4 2 no c♯m, fm d°, G♯

## Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 319 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

 2nd mode:Scale 2207 Mygian 3rd mode:Scale 3151 Pacrian 4th mode:Scale 3623 Aerocrian 5th mode:Scale 3859 Aeolarian 6th mode:Scale 3977 Kythian 7th mode:Scale 1009 Katyptian

## Prime

This is the prime form of this scale.

## Complement

The heptatonic modal family [319, 2207, 3151, 3623, 3859, 3977, 1009] (Forte: 7-3) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [55, 1795, 2075, 2945, 3085] (Forte: 5-3)

## Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 319 is 3985

 Scale 3985 Thadian

## Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 319 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 3985

 Scale 3985 Thadian

## Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 319       T0I <11,0> 3985
T1 <1,1> 638      T1I <11,1> 3875
T2 <1,2> 1276      T2I <11,2> 3655
T3 <1,3> 2552      T3I <11,3> 3215
T4 <1,4> 1009      T4I <11,4> 2335
T5 <1,5> 2018      T5I <11,5> 575
T6 <1,6> 4036      T6I <11,6> 1150
T7 <1,7> 3977      T7I <11,7> 2300
T8 <1,8> 3859      T8I <11,8> 505
T9 <1,9> 3623      T9I <11,9> 1010
T10 <1,10> 3151      T10I <11,10> 2020
T11 <1,11> 2207      T11I <11,11> 4040
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1339      T0MI <7,0> 2965
T1M <5,1> 2678      T1MI <7,1> 1835
T2M <5,2> 1261      T2MI <7,2> 3670
T3M <5,3> 2522      T3MI <7,3> 3245
T4M <5,4> 949      T4MI <7,4> 2395
T5M <5,5> 1898      T5MI <7,5> 695
T6M <5,6> 3796      T6MI <7,6> 1390
T7M <5,7> 3497      T7MI <7,7> 2780
T8M <5,8> 2899      T8MI <7,8> 1465
T9M <5,9> 1703      T9MI <7,9> 2930
T10M <5,10> 3406      T10MI <7,10> 1765
T11M <5,11> 2717      T11MI <7,11> 3530

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

## Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

 Scale 317 Korimic Scale 315 Stodimic Scale 311 Stagimic Scale 303 Golimic Scale 287 Gynimic Scale 351 Epanian Scale 383 Logyllic Scale 447 Thyphyllic Scale 63 Hexatonic Chromatic Scale 191 Begian Scale 575 Ionydian Scale 831 Rodyllic Scale 1343 Zalyllic Scale 2367 Laryllic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.