The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 4059: "Zolyllian"

Scale 4059: Zolyllian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Zeitler
Zolyllian
Dozenal
Zujian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

10 (decatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,3,4,6,7,8,9,10,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

10-3

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

[3.5]

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

no

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

8 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

6 (multicohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

2

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

9

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 1791

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<8, 8, 9, 8, 8, 4>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p8m8n9s8d8t4

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2}
<2> = {2,3}
<3> = {3,4,5}
<4> = {4,5,6}
<5> = {5,6,7}
<6> = {6,7,8}
<7> = {7,8,9}
<8> = {9,10}
<9> = {10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

1.4

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

yes

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.866

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

6.141

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

[7]

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(20, 154, 235)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsC{0,4,7}452.58
D♯{3,7,10}452.67
E{4,8,11}352.75
F♯{6,10,1}452.83
G♯{8,0,3}452.67
A{9,1,4}452.75
B{11,3,6}352.75
Minor Triadscm{0,3,7}452.58
c♯m{1,4,8}352.75
d♯m{3,6,10}452.75
em{4,7,11}452.67
f♯m{6,9,1}452.83
g♯m{8,11,3}352.75
am{9,0,4}452.67
Augmented TriadsC+{0,4,8}552.5
D♯+{3,7,11}552.5
Diminished Triads{0,3,6}253
c♯°{1,4,7}253
d♯°{3,6,9}253
{4,7,10}253
f♯°{6,9,0}253
{7,10,1}253
{9,0,3}253
a♯°{10,1,4}253
Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 4059. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 cm cm c°->cm B B c°->B C C cm->C D#+ D#+ cm->D#+ G# G# cm->G# C+ C+ C->C+ c#° c#° C->c#° em em C->em c#m c#m C+->c#m E E C+->E C+->G# am am C+->am c#°->c#m A A c#m->A d#° d#° d#m d#m d#°->d#m f#m f#m d#°->f#m D# D# d#m->D# F# F# d#m->F# d#m->B D#->D#+ D#->e° D#->g° D#+->em g#m g#m D#+->g#m D#+->B e°->em em->E E->g#m f#° f#° f#°->f#m f#°->am f#m->F# f#m->A F#->g° a#° a#° F#->a#° g#m->G# G#->a° a°->am am->A A->a#°

view full size

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter5
Radius5
Self-Centeredyes

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 4059 can be rotated to make 9 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 4077
Scale 4077: Gothyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGothyllian
3rd mode:
Scale 2043
Scale 2043: Maqam Tarzanuyn, Ian Ring Music TheoryMaqam Tarzanuyn
4th mode:
Scale 3069
Scale 3069: Maqam Shawq Afza, Ian Ring Music TheoryMaqam Shawq Afza
5th mode:
Scale 1791
Scale 1791: Aerygyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerygyllianThis is the prime mode
6th mode:
Scale 2943
Scale 2943: Dathyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDathyllian
7th mode:
Scale 3519
Scale 3519: Raga Sindhi-Bhairavi, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Sindhi-Bhairavi
8th mode:
Scale 3807
Scale 3807: Bagyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBagyllian
9th mode:
Scale 3951
Scale 3951: Mathyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMathyllian
10th mode:
Scale 4023
Scale 4023: Styptyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStyptyllian

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 1791

Scale 1791Scale 1791: Aerygyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerygyllian

Complement

The decatonic modal family [4059, 4077, 2043, 3069, 1791, 2943, 3519, 3807, 3951, 4023] (Forte: 10-3) is the complement of the ditonic modal family [9, 513] (Forte: 2-3)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 4059 is 2943

Scale 2943Scale 2943: Dathyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDathyllian

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 4059       T0I <11,0> 2943
T1 <1,1> 4023      T1I <11,1> 1791
T2 <1,2> 3951      T2I <11,2> 3582
T3 <1,3> 3807      T3I <11,3> 3069
T4 <1,4> 3519      T4I <11,4> 2043
T5 <1,5> 2943      T5I <11,5> 4086
T6 <1,6> 1791      T6I <11,6> 4077
T7 <1,7> 3582      T7I <11,7> 4059
T8 <1,8> 3069      T8I <11,8> 4023
T9 <1,9> 2043      T9I <11,9> 3951
T10 <1,10> 4086      T10I <11,10> 3807
T11 <1,11> 4077      T11I <11,11> 3519
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3069      T0MI <7,0> 2043
T1M <5,1> 2043      T1MI <7,1> 4086
T2M <5,2> 4086      T2MI <7,2> 4077
T3M <5,3> 4077      T3MI <7,3> 4059
T4M <5,4> 4059       T4MI <7,4> 4023
T5M <5,5> 4023      T5MI <7,5> 3951
T6M <5,6> 3951      T6MI <7,6> 3807
T7M <5,7> 3807      T7MI <7,7> 3519
T8M <5,8> 3519      T8MI <7,8> 2943
T9M <5,9> 2943      T9MI <7,9> 1791
T10M <5,10> 1791      T10MI <7,10> 3582
T11M <5,11> 3582      T11MI <7,11> 3069

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T7I, T4M, T3MI

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 4057Scale 4057: Phrygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhrygic
Scale 4061Scale 4061: Staptyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStaptyllian
Scale 4063Scale 4063: Chromatic Undecamode 7, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 7
Scale 4051Scale 4051: Ionilygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonilygic
Scale 4055Scale 4055: Dagyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDagyllian
Scale 4043Scale 4043: Phrocrygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhrocrygic
Scale 4075Scale 4075: Katyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatyllian
Scale 4091Scale 4091: Chromatic Undecamode 10, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 10
Scale 3995Scale 3995: Ionygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonygic
Scale 4027Scale 4027: Ragyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRagyllian
Scale 3931Scale 3931: Aerygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerygic
Scale 3803Scale 3803: Epidygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpidygic
Scale 3547Scale 3547: Sadygic, Ian Ring Music TheorySadygic
Scale 3035Scale 3035: Gocrygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryGocrygic
Scale 2011Scale 2011: Raphygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaphygic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.