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Scale 4091: "Chromatic Undecamode 10"

Scale 4091: Chromatic Undecamode 10, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Western Modern
Chromatic Undecamode 10
Undecatonic Chromatic 10



Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

11 (hendecatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.



A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

10 (multihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

9 (multicohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 2047


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

generator: 1
origin: 3

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 5>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2}
<2> = {2,3}
<3> = {3,4}
<4> = {4,5}
<5> = {5,6}
<6> = {6,7}
<7> = {7,8}
<8> = {8,9}
<9> = {9,10}
<10> = {10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(0, 165, 220)


This scale has a generator of 1, originating on 3.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsC{0,4,7}452.8
Minor Triadscm{0,3,7}452.93
Augmented TriadsC+{0,4,8}652.6
Diminished Triads{0,3,6}253.37
Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 4091. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 cm cm c°->cm B B c°->B C C cm->C D#+ D#+ cm->D#+ G# G# cm->G# C+ C+ C->C+ c#° c#° C->c#° em em C->em c#m c#m C+->c#m E E C+->E fm fm C+->fm C+->G# am am C+->am c#°->c#m C# C# c#m->C# A A c#m->A C#+ C#+ C#->C#+ C#->fm F F C#+->F f#m f#m C#+->f#m C#+->A a#m a#m C#+->a#m d#° d#° d#m d#m d#°->d#m d#°->f#m D# D# d#m->D# F# F# d#m->F# d#m->B D#->D#+ D#->e° D#->g° D#+->em g#m g#m D#+->g#m D#+->B e°->em em->E E->f° E->g#m f°->fm fm->F f#° f#° F->f#° F->am f#°->f#m f#m->F# F#->g° F#->a#m g#m->G# G#->a° a°->am am->A a#° a#° A->a#° a#°->a#m

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Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.



Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 4091 can be rotated to make 10 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 4093
Scale 4093: Chromatic Undecamode 11, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 11
3rd mode:
Scale 2047
Scale 2047: Chromatic Undecamode, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic UndecamodeThis is the prime mode
4th mode:
Scale 3071
Scale 3071: Chromatic Undecamode 2, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 2
5th mode:
Scale 3583
Scale 3583: Chromatic Undecamode 3, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 3
6th mode:
Scale 3839
Scale 3839: Chromatic Undecamode 4, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 4
7th mode:
Scale 3967
Scale 3967: Chromatic Undecamode 5, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 5
8th mode:
Scale 4031
Scale 4031: Chromatic Undecamode 6, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 6
9th mode:
Scale 4063
Scale 4063: Chromatic Undecamode 7, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 7
10th mode:
Scale 4079
Scale 4079: Chromatic Undecamode 8, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 8
11th mode:
Scale 4087
Scale 4087: Chromatic Undecamode 9, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 9


The prime form of this scale is Scale 2047

Scale 2047Scale 2047: Chromatic Undecamode, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode


The hendecatonic modal family [4091, 4093, 2047, 3071, 3583, 3839, 3967, 4031, 4063, 4079, 4087] (Forte: 11-1) is the complement of the monotonic modal family [1] (Forte: 1-1)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 4091 is 3071

Scale 3071Scale 3071: Chromatic Undecamode 2, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 2


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 4091       T0I <11,0> 3071
T1 <1,1> 4087      T1I <11,1> 2047
T2 <1,2> 4079      T2I <11,2> 4094
T3 <1,3> 4063      T3I <11,3> 4093
T4 <1,4> 4031      T4I <11,4> 4091
T5 <1,5> 3967      T5I <11,5> 4087
T6 <1,6> 3839      T6I <11,6> 4079
T7 <1,7> 3583      T7I <11,7> 4063
T8 <1,8> 3071      T8I <11,8> 4031
T9 <1,9> 2047      T9I <11,9> 3967
T10 <1,10> 4094      T10I <11,10> 3839
T11 <1,11> 4093      T11I <11,11> 3583
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3071      T0MI <7,0> 4091
T1M <5,1> 2047      T1MI <7,1> 4087
T2M <5,2> 4094      T2MI <7,2> 4079
T3M <5,3> 4093      T3MI <7,3> 4063
T4M <5,4> 4091       T4MI <7,4> 4031
T5M <5,5> 4087      T5MI <7,5> 3967
T6M <5,6> 4079      T6MI <7,6> 3839
T7M <5,7> 4063      T7MI <7,7> 3583
T8M <5,8> 4031      T8MI <7,8> 3071
T9M <5,9> 3967      T9MI <7,9> 2047
T10M <5,10> 3839      T10MI <7,10> 4094
T11M <5,11> 3583      T11MI <7,11> 4093

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T4I, T4M, T0MI

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 4089Scale 4089: Decatonic Chromatic Descending, Ian Ring Music TheoryDecatonic Chromatic Descending
Scale 4093Scale 4093: Chromatic Undecamode 11, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 11
Scale 4095Scale 4095: Chromatic, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic
Scale 4083Scale 4083: Decatonic Chromatic 9, Ian Ring Music TheoryDecatonic Chromatic 9
Scale 4087Scale 4087: Chromatic Undecamode 9, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Undecamode 9
Scale 4075Scale 4075: Katyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatyllian
Scale 4059Scale 4059: Zolyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZolyllian
Scale 4027Scale 4027: Ragyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRagyllian
Scale 3963Scale 3963: Aeoryllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeoryllian
Scale 3835Scale 3835: Katodyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatodyllian
Scale 3579Scale 3579: Zyphyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZyphyllian
Scale 3067Scale 3067: Goptyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGoptyllian
Scale 2043Scale 2043: Maqam Tarzanuyn, Ian Ring Music TheoryMaqam Tarzanuyn

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.