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Scale 433: "Raga Zilaf"

Scale 433: Raga Zilaf, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Carnatic
Raga Zilaf
Dozenal
Coyian
Zeitler
Poritonic

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

5 (pentatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,4,5,7,8}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

5-Z17

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

[0]

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

yes

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

no

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

2 (dihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

3

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

4

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 283

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[4, 1, 2, 1, 4]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<2, 1, 2, 3, 2, 0>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p2m3n2sd2

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,4}
<2> = {3,5,8}
<3> = {4,7,9}
<4> = {8,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

3.2

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

1.799

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.499

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

[0]

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(13, 4, 32)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsC{0,4,7}121
Minor Triadsfm{5,8,0}121
Augmented TriadsC+{0,4,8}210.67
Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 433. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 C C C+ C+ C->C+ fm fm C+->fm

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter2
Radius1
Self-Centeredno
Central VerticesC+
Peripheral VerticesC, fm

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 433 can be rotated to make 4 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 283
Scale 283: Aerylitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerylitonicThis is the prime mode
3rd mode:
Scale 2189
Scale 2189: Zagitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZagitonic
4th mode:
Scale 1571
Scale 1571: Lagitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLagitonic
5th mode:
Scale 2833
Scale 2833: Dolitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDolitonic

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 283

Scale 283Scale 283: Aerylitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerylitonic

Complement

The pentatonic modal family [433, 283, 2189, 1571, 2833] (Forte: 5-Z17) is the complement of the heptatonic modal family [631, 953, 1831, 2363, 2963, 3229, 3529] (Forte: 7-Z17)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 433 is itself, because it is a palindromic scale!

Scale 433Scale 433: Raga Zilaf, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Zilaf

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 433       T0I <11,0> 433
T1 <1,1> 866      T1I <11,1> 866
T2 <1,2> 1732      T2I <11,2> 1732
T3 <1,3> 3464      T3I <11,3> 3464
T4 <1,4> 2833      T4I <11,4> 2833
T5 <1,5> 1571      T5I <11,5> 1571
T6 <1,6> 3142      T6I <11,6> 3142
T7 <1,7> 2189      T7I <11,7> 2189
T8 <1,8> 283      T8I <11,8> 283
T9 <1,9> 566      T9I <11,9> 566
T10 <1,10> 1132      T10I <11,10> 1132
T11 <1,11> 2264      T11I <11,11> 2264
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 2323      T0MI <7,0> 2323
T1M <5,1> 551      T1MI <7,1> 551
T2M <5,2> 1102      T2MI <7,2> 1102
T3M <5,3> 2204      T3MI <7,3> 2204
T4M <5,4> 313      T4MI <7,4> 313
T5M <5,5> 626      T5MI <7,5> 626
T6M <5,6> 1252      T6MI <7,6> 1252
T7M <5,7> 2504      T7MI <7,7> 2504
T8M <5,8> 913      T8MI <7,8> 913
T9M <5,9> 1826      T9MI <7,9> 1826
T10M <5,10> 3652      T10MI <7,10> 3652
T11M <5,11> 3209      T11MI <7,11> 3209

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T0I

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 435Scale 435: Raga Purna Pancama, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Purna Pancama
Scale 437Scale 437: Ronimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryRonimic
Scale 441Scale 441: Thycrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryThycrimic
Scale 417Scale 417: Copian, Ian Ring Music TheoryCopian
Scale 425Scale 425: Raga Kokil Pancham, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Kokil Pancham
Scale 401Scale 401: Epogic, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpogic
Scale 465Scale 465: Zoditonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZoditonic
Scale 497Scale 497: Kadimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKadimic
Scale 305Scale 305: Gonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryGonic
Scale 369Scale 369: Laditonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLaditonic
Scale 177Scale 177: Bexian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBexian
Scale 689Scale 689: Raga Nagasvaravali, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Nagasvaravali
Scale 945Scale 945: Raga Saravati, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Saravati
Scale 1457Scale 1457: Raga Kamalamanohari, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Kamalamanohari
Scale 2481Scale 2481: Raga Paraju, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Paraju

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.