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Scale 2481: "Raga Paraju"

Scale 2481: Raga Paraju, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Carnatic
Raga Paraju
Raga Paraz
Raga Pharas
Unknown / Unsorted
Ramamanohari
Sindhu Ramakriya
Kamalamanohari
Zeitler
Laptimic
Dozenal
Pegian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

6 (hexatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,4,5,7,8,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

6-Z19

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 435

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

3 (trihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

3

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

5

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 411

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[4, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<3, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p3m4n3sd3t

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,3,4}
<2> = {3,4,5}
<3> = {4,5,6,7,8}
<4> = {7,8,9}
<5> = {8,9,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2.333

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.116

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.699

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(8, 18, 62)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsC{0,4,7}231.5
E{4,8,11}321.17
Minor Triadsem{4,7,11}231.5
fm{5,8,0}231.5
Augmented TriadsC+{0,4,8}321.17
Diminished Triads{5,8,11}231.5
Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 2481. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 C C C+ C+ C->C+ em em C->em E E C+->E fm fm C+->fm em->E E->f° f°->fm

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter3
Radius2
Self-Centeredno
Central VerticesC+, E
Peripheral VerticesC, em, f°, fm

Triad Polychords

Also known as Bi-Triadic Hexatonics (a term coined by mDecks), and related to Generic Modality Compression (a method for guitar by Mick Goodrick and Tim Miller), these are two common triads that when combined use all the tones in this scale.

There are 2 ways that this hexatonic scale can be split into two common triads.


Major: {0, 4, 7}
Diminished: {5, 8, 11}

Minor: {4, 7, 11}
Minor: {5, 8, 0}

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 2481 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 411
Scale 411: Lygimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLygimicThis is the prime mode
3rd mode:
Scale 2253
Scale 2253: Raga Amarasenapriya, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Amarasenapriya
4th mode:
Scale 1587
Scale 1587: Raga Rudra Pancama, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Rudra Pancama
5th mode:
Scale 2841
Scale 2841: Sothimic, Ian Ring Music TheorySothimic
6th mode:
Scale 867
Scale 867: Phrocrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhrocrimic

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 411

Scale 411Scale 411: Lygimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLygimic

Complement

The hexatonic modal family [2481, 411, 2253, 1587, 2841, 867] (Forte: 6-Z19) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [615, 825, 915, 2355, 2505, 3225] (Forte: 6-Z44)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 2481 is 435

Scale 435Scale 435: Raga Purna Pancama, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Purna Pancama

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 2481 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 435

Scale 435Scale 435: Raga Purna Pancama, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Purna Pancama

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 2481       T0I <11,0> 435
T1 <1,1> 867      T1I <11,1> 870
T2 <1,2> 1734      T2I <11,2> 1740
T3 <1,3> 3468      T3I <11,3> 3480
T4 <1,4> 2841      T4I <11,4> 2865
T5 <1,5> 1587      T5I <11,5> 1635
T6 <1,6> 3174      T6I <11,6> 3270
T7 <1,7> 2253      T7I <11,7> 2445
T8 <1,8> 411      T8I <11,8> 795
T9 <1,9> 822      T9I <11,9> 1590
T10 <1,10> 1644      T10I <11,10> 3180
T11 <1,11> 3288      T11I <11,11> 2265
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 2451      T0MI <7,0> 2355
T1M <5,1> 807      T1MI <7,1> 615
T2M <5,2> 1614      T2MI <7,2> 1230
T3M <5,3> 3228      T3MI <7,3> 2460
T4M <5,4> 2361      T4MI <7,4> 825
T5M <5,5> 627      T5MI <7,5> 1650
T6M <5,6> 1254      T6MI <7,6> 3300
T7M <5,7> 2508      T7MI <7,7> 2505
T8M <5,8> 921      T8MI <7,8> 915
T9M <5,9> 1842      T9MI <7,9> 1830
T10M <5,10> 3684      T10MI <7,10> 3660
T11M <5,11> 3273      T11MI <7,11> 3225

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 2483Scale 2483: Double Harmonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDouble Harmonic
Scale 2485Scale 2485: Harmonic Major, Ian Ring Music TheoryHarmonic Major
Scale 2489Scale 2489: Mela Gangeyabhusani, Ian Ring Music TheoryMela Gangeyabhusani
Scale 2465Scale 2465: Raga Devaranjani, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Devaranjani
Scale 2473Scale 2473: Raga Takka, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Takka
Scale 2449Scale 2449: Zacritonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZacritonic
Scale 2513Scale 2513: Aerycrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerycrimic
Scale 2545Scale 2545: Thycrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryThycrian
Scale 2353Scale 2353: Raga Girija, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Girija
Scale 2417Scale 2417: Kanimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKanimic
Scale 2225Scale 2225: Ionian Pentatonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonian Pentatonic
Scale 2737Scale 2737: Raga Hari Nata, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Hari Nata
Scale 2993Scale 2993: Stythian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStythian
Scale 3505Scale 3505: Stygian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStygian
Scale 433Scale 433: Raga Zilaf, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Zilaf
Scale 1457Scale 1457: Raga Kamalamanohari, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Kamalamanohari

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.