The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 527: "Dedian"

Scale 527: Dedian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

5 (pentatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 3593


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

3 (trihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

2 (dicohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 79


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 1, 6, 3]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<3, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,3,6}
<2> = {2,4,7,9}
<3> = {3,5,8,10}
<4> = {6,9,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(20, 3, 32)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Diminished Triads{9,0,3}000

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {1,2}

Since there is only one common triad in this scale, there are no opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 527 can be rotated to make 4 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 2311
Scale 2311: Raga Kumarapriya, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Kumarapriya
3rd mode:
Scale 3203
Scale 3203: Etrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryEtrian
4th mode:
Scale 3649
Scale 3649: Wupian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWupian
5th mode:
Scale 121
Scale 121: Asoian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAsoian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 79

Scale 79Scale 79: Appian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAppian


The pentatonic modal family [527, 2311, 3203, 3649, 121] (Forte: 5-4) is the complement of the heptatonic modal family [223, 1987, 2159, 3041, 3127, 3611, 3853] (Forte: 7-4)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 527 is 3593

Scale 3593Scale 3593: Wigian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWigian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 527 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 3593

Scale 3593Scale 3593: Wigian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWigian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 527       T0I <11,0> 3593
T1 <1,1> 1054      T1I <11,1> 3091
T2 <1,2> 2108      T2I <11,2> 2087
T3 <1,3> 121      T3I <11,3> 79
T4 <1,4> 242      T4I <11,4> 158
T5 <1,5> 484      T5I <11,5> 316
T6 <1,6> 968      T6I <11,6> 632
T7 <1,7> 1936      T7I <11,7> 1264
T8 <1,8> 3872      T8I <11,8> 2528
T9 <1,9> 3649      T9I <11,9> 961
T10 <1,10> 3203      T10I <11,10> 1922
T11 <1,11> 2311      T11I <11,11> 3844
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1577      T0MI <7,0> 653
T1M <5,1> 3154      T1MI <7,1> 1306
T2M <5,2> 2213      T2MI <7,2> 2612
T3M <5,3> 331      T3MI <7,3> 1129
T4M <5,4> 662      T4MI <7,4> 2258
T5M <5,5> 1324      T5MI <7,5> 421
T6M <5,6> 2648      T6MI <7,6> 842
T7M <5,7> 1201      T7MI <7,7> 1684
T8M <5,8> 2402      T8MI <7,8> 3368
T9M <5,9> 709      T9MI <7,9> 2641
T10M <5,10> 1418      T10MI <7,10> 1187
T11M <5,11> 2836      T11MI <7,11> 2374

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 525Scale 525, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 523Scale 523: Debian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDebian
Scale 519Scale 519: Deyian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDeyian
Scale 535Scale 535: Dejian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDejian
Scale 543Scale 543: Denian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDenian
Scale 559Scale 559: Lylimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLylimic
Scale 591Scale 591: Gaptimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryGaptimic
Scale 655Scale 655: Kataptimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKataptimic
Scale 783Scale 783: Etuian, Ian Ring Music TheoryEtuian
Scale 15Scale 15: Tetratonic Chromatic, Ian Ring Music TheoryTetratonic Chromatic
Scale 271Scale 271: Bodian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBodian
Scale 1039Scale 1039: Gixian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGixian
Scale 1551Scale 1551: Jorian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJorian
Scale 2575Scale 2575: Pumian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPumian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.