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Scale 223

Scale 223, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,2,3,4,6,7}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-4

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 3937

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

5 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

3 (tricohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

4

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

yes

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Formula

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 5]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<5, 4, 4, 3, 3, 2>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p3m3n4s4d5t2

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,5}
<2> = {2,3,6}
<3> = {3,4,7,8}
<4> = {4,5,8,9}
<5> = {6,9,10}
<6> = {7,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

3.714

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

1.933

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.52

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(57, 26, 90)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsC{0,4,7}221
Minor Triadscm{0,3,7}221
Diminished Triads{0,3,6}131.5
c♯°{1,4,7}131.5

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {2}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 223. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 cm cm c°->cm C C cm->C c#° c#° C->c#°

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter3
Radius2
Self-Centeredno
Central Verticescm, C
Peripheral Verticesc°, c♯°

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 223 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 2159
Scale 2159, Ian Ring Music Theory
3rd mode:
Scale 3127
Scale 3127, Ian Ring Music Theory
4th mode:
Scale 3611
Scale 3611, Ian Ring Music Theory
5th mode:
Scale 3853
Scale 3853, Ian Ring Music Theory
6th mode:
Scale 1987
Scale 1987, Ian Ring Music Theory
7th mode:
Scale 3041
Scale 3041, Ian Ring Music Theory

Prime

This is the prime form of this scale.

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [223, 2159, 3127, 3611, 3853, 1987, 3041] (Forte: 7-4) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [79, 961, 2087, 3091, 3593] (Forte: 5-4)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 223 is 3937

Scale 3937Scale 3937, Ian Ring Music Theory

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 223 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 3937

Scale 3937Scale 3937, Ian Ring Music Theory

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 223       T0I <11,0> 3937
T1 <1,1> 446      T1I <11,1> 3779
T2 <1,2> 892      T2I <11,2> 3463
T3 <1,3> 1784      T3I <11,3> 2831
T4 <1,4> 3568      T4I <11,4> 1567
T5 <1,5> 3041      T5I <11,5> 3134
T6 <1,6> 1987      T6I <11,6> 2173
T7 <1,7> 3974      T7I <11,7> 251
T8 <1,8> 3853      T8I <11,8> 502
T9 <1,9> 3611      T9I <11,9> 1004
T10 <1,10> 3127      T10I <11,10> 2008
T11 <1,11> 2159      T11I <11,11> 4016
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3433      T0MI <7,0> 727
T1M <5,1> 2771      T1MI <7,1> 1454
T2M <5,2> 1447      T2MI <7,2> 2908
T3M <5,3> 2894      T3MI <7,3> 1721
T4M <5,4> 1693      T4MI <7,4> 3442
T5M <5,5> 3386      T5MI <7,5> 2789
T6M <5,6> 2677      T6MI <7,6> 1483
T7M <5,7> 1259      T7MI <7,7> 2966
T8M <5,8> 2518      T8MI <7,8> 1837
T9M <5,9> 941      T9MI <7,9> 3674
T10M <5,10> 1882      T10MI <7,10> 3253
T11M <5,11> 3764      T11MI <7,11> 2411

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 221Scale 221, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 219Scale 219: Istrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIstrian
Scale 215Scale 215, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 207Scale 207, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 239Scale 239, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 255Scale 255: Chromatic Octamode, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Octamode
Scale 159Scale 159, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 191Scale 191, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 95Scale 95, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 351Scale 351: Epanian, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpanian
Scale 479Scale 479: Kocryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKocryllic
Scale 735Scale 735: Sylyllic, Ian Ring Music TheorySylyllic
Scale 1247Scale 1247: Aeodyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeodyllic
Scale 2271Scale 2271: Poptyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPoptyllic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy.