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Scale 835: "FECian"

Scale 835: FECian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).



Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

5 (pentatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 2137


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

2 (dihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

prime: 179


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 5, 2, 1, 3]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1>

Proportional Saturation Vector

First described by Michael Buchler (2001), this is a vector showing the prominence of intervals relative to the maximum and minimum possible for the scale's cardinality. A saturation of 0 means the interval is present minimally, a saturation of 1 means it is the maximum possible.

<0.5, 0.25, 0.5, 0.333, 0.5, 0.5>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,3,5}
<2> = {3,4,6,7}
<3> = {5,6,8,9}
<4> = {7,9,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(9, 5, 36)

Coherence Quotient

The Coherence Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of coherence failures (ambiguity or contradiction) in the scale, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A high coherence quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a maximally complex scale.


Sameness Quotient

The Sameness Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of differences in the heteromorphic profile, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A higher quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a scale with maximum complexity.



This scale has no generator.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Minor Triadsf♯m{6,9,1}110.5
Diminished Triadsf♯°{6,9,0}110.5

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {8}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 835. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 f#° f#° f#m f#m f#°->f#m

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.



Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 835 can be rotated to make 4 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 2465
Scale 2465: Raga Devaranjani, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Devaranjani
3rd mode:
Scale 205
Scale 205: BEPian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBEPian
4th mode:
Scale 1075
Scale 1075: GOTian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGOTian
5th mode:
Scale 2585
Scale 2585: OTLian, Ian Ring Music TheoryOTLian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 179

Scale 179Scale 179: BEYian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBEYian


The pentatonic modal family [835, 2465, 205, 1075, 2585] (Forte: 5-Z18) is the complement of the heptatonic modal family [755, 815, 1945, 2425, 2455, 3275, 3685] (Forte: 7-Z18)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 835 is 2137

Scale 2137Scale 2137: NALian, Ian Ring Music TheoryNALian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 835 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 2137

Scale 2137Scale 2137: NALian, Ian Ring Music TheoryNALian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 835       T0I <11,0> 2137
T1 <1,1> 1670      T1I <11,1> 179
T2 <1,2> 3340      T2I <11,2> 358
T3 <1,3> 2585      T3I <11,3> 716
T4 <1,4> 1075      T4I <11,4> 1432
T5 <1,5> 2150      T5I <11,5> 2864
T6 <1,6> 205      T6I <11,6> 1633
T7 <1,7> 410      T7I <11,7> 3266
T8 <1,8> 820      T8I <11,8> 2437
T9 <1,9> 1640      T9I <11,9> 779
T10 <1,10> 3280      T10I <11,10> 1558
T11 <1,11> 2465      T11I <11,11> 3116
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 625      T0MI <7,0> 457
T1M <5,1> 1250      T1MI <7,1> 914
T2M <5,2> 2500      T2MI <7,2> 1828
T3M <5,3> 905      T3MI <7,3> 3656
T4M <5,4> 1810      T4MI <7,4> 3217
T5M <5,5> 3620      T5MI <7,5> 2339
T6M <5,6> 3145      T6MI <7,6> 583
T7M <5,7> 2195      T7MI <7,7> 1166
T8M <5,8> 295      T8MI <7,8> 2332
T9M <5,9> 590      T9MI <7,9> 569
T10M <5,10> 1180      T10MI <7,10> 1138
T11M <5,11> 2360      T11MI <7,11> 2276

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 833Scale 833: FEBian, Ian Ring Music TheoryFEBian
Scale 837Scale 837: Epaditonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpaditonic
Scale 839Scale 839: Ionathimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonathimic
Scale 843Scale 843: Molimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMolimic
Scale 851Scale 851: Raga Hejjajji, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Hejjajji
Scale 867Scale 867: Phrocrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhrocrimic
Scale 771Scale 771: ESOian, Ian Ring Music TheoryESOian
Scale 803Scale 803: Loritonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLoritonic
Scale 899Scale 899: FOQian, Ian Ring Music TheoryFOQian
Scale 963Scale 963: GACian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGACian
Scale 579Scale 579: GIYian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGIYian
Scale 707Scale 707: EHOian, Ian Ring Music TheoryEHOian
Scale 323Scale 323: CAJian, Ian Ring Music TheoryCAJian
Scale 1347Scale 1347: IGOian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIGOian
Scale 1859Scale 1859: LIXian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLIXian
Scale 2883Scale 2883: SAVian, Ian Ring Music TheorySAVian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow and Lilypond, graph visualization by Graphviz, audio by TiMIDIty and FFMPEG. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.