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Scale 1093: "Lydic"

Scale 1093: Lydic, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

4 (tetratonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.



A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

0 (anhemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 277


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 4, 4, 2]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {2,4}
<2> = {4,6,8}
<3> = {8,10}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(0, 4, 13)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Augmented TriadsD+{2,6,10}000

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {0}

Since there is only one common triad in this scale, there are no opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 1093 can be rotated to make 3 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 1297
Scale 1297: Aeolic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeolic
3rd mode:
Scale 337
Scale 337: Koptic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKoptic
4th mode:
Scale 277
Scale 277: Mixolyric, Ian Ring Music TheoryMixolyricThis is the prime mode


The prime form of this scale is Scale 277

Scale 277Scale 277: Mixolyric, Ian Ring Music TheoryMixolyric


The tetratonic modal family [1093, 1297, 337, 277] (Forte: 4-24) is the complement of the octatonic modal family [1399, 1501, 1879, 1909, 2747, 2987, 3421, 3541] (Forte: 8-24)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 1093 is itself, because it is a palindromic scale!

Scale 1093Scale 1093: Lydic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLydic


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 1093       T0I <11,0> 1093
T1 <1,1> 2186      T1I <11,1> 2186
T2 <1,2> 277      T2I <11,2> 277
T3 <1,3> 554      T3I <11,3> 554
T4 <1,4> 1108      T4I <11,4> 1108
T5 <1,5> 2216      T5I <11,5> 2216
T6 <1,6> 337      T6I <11,6> 337
T7 <1,7> 674      T7I <11,7> 674
T8 <1,8> 1348      T8I <11,8> 1348
T9 <1,9> 2696      T9I <11,9> 2696
T10 <1,10> 1297      T10I <11,10> 1297
T11 <1,11> 2594      T11I <11,11> 2594
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1093       T0MI <7,0> 1093
T1M <5,1> 2186      T1MI <7,1> 2186
T2M <5,2> 277      T2MI <7,2> 277
T3M <5,3> 554      T3MI <7,3> 554
T4M <5,4> 1108      T4MI <7,4> 1108
T5M <5,5> 2216      T5MI <7,5> 2216
T6M <5,6> 337      T6MI <7,6> 337
T7M <5,7> 674      T7MI <7,7> 674
T8M <5,8> 1348      T8MI <7,8> 1348
T9M <5,9> 2696      T9MI <7,9> 2696
T10M <5,10> 1297      T10MI <7,10> 1297
T11M <5,11> 2594      T11MI <7,11> 2594

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T0I, T0M, T0MI

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 1095Scale 1095: Phrythitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhrythitonic
Scale 1089Scale 1089: Gocian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGocian
Scale 1091Scale 1091: Pedian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPedian
Scale 1097Scale 1097: Aeraphic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeraphic
Scale 1101Scale 1101: Stothitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryStothitonic
Scale 1109Scale 1109: Kataditonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKataditonic
Scale 1125Scale 1125: Ionaritonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonaritonic
Scale 1029Scale 1029: Ampian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAmpian
Scale 1061Scale 1061: Gilian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGilian
Scale 1157Scale 1157: Alkian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAlkian
Scale 1221Scale 1221: Epyritonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpyritonic
Scale 1349Scale 1349: Tholitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryTholitonic
Scale 1605Scale 1605: Zanitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZanitonic
Scale 69Scale 69: Dezian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDezian
Scale 581Scale 581: Eporic 2, Ian Ring Music TheoryEporic 2
Scale 2117Scale 2117: Raga Sumukam, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Sumukam
Scale 3141Scale 3141: Kanitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKanitonic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.