The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 1323: "Ritsu"

Scale 1323: Ritsu, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Japanese
Ritsu
Carnatic
Raga Suddha Todi
Zeitler
Eporimic
Dozenal
Irmian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

6 (hexatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,3,5,8,10}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

6-32

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

[0.5]

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

no

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

1 (unhemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

1

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

5

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 693

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

generator: 5
origin: 0

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

yes

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<1, 4, 3, 2, 5, 0>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p5m2n3s4d

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,3}
<2> = {3,4,5}
<3> = {5,7}
<4> = {7,8,9}
<5> = {9,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

1.667

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.482

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.932

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

[1]

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Proper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(0, 16, 51)

Generator

This scale has a generator of 5, originating on 0.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsC♯{1,5,8}221
G♯{8,0,3}131.5
Minor Triadsfm{5,8,0}221
a♯m{10,1,5}131.5
Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 1323. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 C# C# fm fm C#->fm a#m a#m C#->a#m G# G# fm->G#

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter3
Radius2
Self-Centeredno
Central VerticesC♯, fm
Peripheral VerticesG♯, a♯m

Triad Polychords

Also known as Bi-Triadic Hexatonics (a term coined by mDecks), and related to Generic Modality Compression (a method for guitar by Mick Goodrick and Tim Miller), these are two common triads that when combined use all the tones in this scale.

There is 1 way that this hexatonic scale can be split into two common triads.


Major: {8, 0, 3}
Minor: {10, 1, 5}

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 1323 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 2709
Scale 2709: Raga Kumud, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Kumud
3rd mode:
Scale 1701
Scale 1701: Dominant Seventh, Ian Ring Music TheoryDominant Seventh
4th mode:
Scale 1449
Scale 1449: Raga Gopikavasantam, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Gopikavasantam
5th mode:
Scale 693
Scale 693: Arezzo Major Diatonic Hexachord, Ian Ring Music TheoryArezzo Major Diatonic HexachordThis is the prime mode
6th mode:
Scale 1197
Scale 1197: Minor Hexatonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMinor Hexatonic

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 693

Scale 693Scale 693: Arezzo Major Diatonic Hexachord, Ian Ring Music TheoryArezzo Major Diatonic Hexachord

Complement

The hexatonic modal family [1323, 2709, 1701, 1449, 693, 1197] (Forte: 6-32) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [693, 1197, 1323, 1449, 1701, 2709] (Forte: 6-32)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 1323 is 2709

Scale 2709Scale 2709: Raga Kumud, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Kumud

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 1323       T0I <11,0> 2709
T1 <1,1> 2646      T1I <11,1> 1323
T2 <1,2> 1197      T2I <11,2> 2646
T3 <1,3> 2394      T3I <11,3> 1197
T4 <1,4> 693      T4I <11,4> 2394
T5 <1,5> 1386      T5I <11,5> 693
T6 <1,6> 2772      T6I <11,6> 1386
T7 <1,7> 1449      T7I <11,7> 2772
T8 <1,8> 2898      T8I <11,8> 1449
T9 <1,9> 1701      T9I <11,9> 2898
T10 <1,10> 3402      T10I <11,10> 1701
T11 <1,11> 2709      T11I <11,11> 3402
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 63      T0MI <7,0> 3969
T1M <5,1> 126      T1MI <7,1> 3843
T2M <5,2> 252      T2MI <7,2> 3591
T3M <5,3> 504      T3MI <7,3> 3087
T4M <5,4> 1008      T4MI <7,4> 2079
T5M <5,5> 2016      T5MI <7,5> 63
T6M <5,6> 4032      T6MI <7,6> 126
T7M <5,7> 3969      T7MI <7,7> 252
T8M <5,8> 3843      T8MI <7,8> 504
T9M <5,9> 3591      T9MI <7,9> 1008
T10M <5,10> 3087      T10MI <7,10> 2016
T11M <5,11> 2079      T11MI <7,11> 4032

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T1I

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 1321Scale 1321: Blues Minor, Ian Ring Music TheoryBlues Minor
Scale 1325Scale 1325: Phradimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhradimic
Scale 1327Scale 1327: Zalian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZalian
Scale 1315Scale 1315: Pyritonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPyritonic
Scale 1319Scale 1319: Phronimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhronimic
Scale 1331Scale 1331: Raga Vasantabhairavi, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Vasantabhairavi
Scale 1339Scale 1339: Kycrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKycrian
Scale 1291Scale 1291: Huwian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHuwian
Scale 1307Scale 1307: Katorimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatorimic
Scale 1355Scale 1355: Raga Bhavani, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Bhavani
Scale 1387Scale 1387: Locrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLocrian
Scale 1451Scale 1451: Phrygian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhrygian
Scale 1067Scale 1067: Gopian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGopian
Scale 1195Scale 1195: Raga Gandharavam, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Gandharavam
Scale 1579Scale 1579: Sagimic, Ian Ring Music TheorySagimic
Scale 1835Scale 1835: Byptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryByptian
Scale 299Scale 299: Raga Chitthakarshini, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Chitthakarshini
Scale 811Scale 811: Radimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryRadimic
Scale 2347Scale 2347: Raga Viyogavarali, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Viyogavarali
Scale 3371Scale 3371: Aeolylian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeolylian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.