The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 2977

Scale 2977, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).


Cardinality6 (hexatonic)
Pitch Class Set{0,5,7,8,9,11}
Forte Number6-Z10
Rotational Symmetrynone
Reflection Axesnone
enantiomorph: 187
Hemitonia3 (trihemitonic)
Cohemitonia1 (uncohemitonic)
prime: 187
Deep Scaleno
Interval Vector333321
Interval Spectrump2m3n3s3d3t
Distribution Spectra<1> = {1,2,5}
<2> = {2,3,6,7}
<3> = {4,8}
<4> = {5,6,9,10}
<5> = {7,10,11}
Spectra Variation3.667
Maximally Evenno
Maximal Area Setno
Interior Area1.866
Myhill Propertyno
Ridge Tonesnone

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsF{5,9,0}121
Minor Triadsfm{5,8,0}210.67
Diminished Triads{5,8,11}121
Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 2977. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 fm fm f°->fm F F fm->F

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Central Verticesfm
Peripheral Verticesf°, F


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 2977 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 221
Scale 221, Ian Ring Music Theory
3rd mode:
Scale 1079
Scale 1079, Ian Ring Music Theory
4th mode:
Scale 2587
Scale 2587, Ian Ring Music Theory
5th mode:
Scale 3341
Scale 3341, Ian Ring Music Theory
6th mode:
Scale 1859
Scale 1859, Ian Ring Music Theory


The prime form of this scale is Scale 187

Scale 187Scale 187, Ian Ring Music Theory


The hexatonic modal family [2977, 221, 1079, 2587, 3341, 1859] (Forte: 6-Z10) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [317, 977, 1103, 2599, 3347, 3721] (Forte: 6-Z39)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 2977 is 187

Scale 187Scale 187, Ian Ring Music Theory


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 2977 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 187

Scale 187Scale 187, Ian Ring Music Theory


T0 2977  T0I 187
T1 1859  T1I 374
T2 3718  T2I 748
T3 3341  T3I 1496
T4 2587  T4I 2992
T5 1079  T5I 1889
T6 2158  T6I 3778
T7 221  T7I 3461
T8 442  T8I 2827
T9 884  T9I 1559
T10 1768  T10I 3118
T11 3536  T11I 2141

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 2979Scale 2979: Gyptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGyptian
Scale 2981Scale 2981: Ionolian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonolian
Scale 2985Scale 2985: Epacrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpacrian
Scale 2993Scale 2993: Stythian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStythian
Scale 2945Scale 2945, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 2961Scale 2961: Bygimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryBygimic
Scale 3009Scale 3009, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3041Scale 3041, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 2849Scale 2849, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 2913Scale 2913, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 2721Scale 2721: Raga Puruhutika, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Puruhutika
Scale 2465Scale 2465: Raga Devaranjani, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Devaranjani
Scale 3489Scale 3489, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 4001Scale 4001, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 929Scale 929, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 1953Scale 1953, Ian Ring Music Theory

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. The software used to generate this analysis is an open source project at GitHub. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy.