The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 3461: "Vodian"

Scale 3461: Vodian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

6 (hexatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 1079


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

3 (trihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

1 (uncohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

prime: 187


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 5, 1, 2, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<3, 3, 3, 3, 2, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,5}
<2> = {2,3,6,7}
<3> = {4,8}
<4> = {5,6,9,10}
<5> = {7,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(29, 7, 55)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsG{7,11,2}210.67
Minor Triadsgm{7,10,2}121
Diminished Triadsg♯°{8,11,2}121

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {0}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 3461. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 gm gm Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 3461. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 G gm->G g#° g#° G->g#°

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Central VerticesG
Peripheral Verticesgm, g♯°


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3461 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 1889
Scale 1889: Loqian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLoqian
3rd mode:
Scale 187
Scale 187: Bedian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBedianThis is the prime mode
4th mode:
Scale 2141
Scale 2141: Nanian, Ian Ring Music TheoryNanian
5th mode:
Scale 1559
Scale 1559: Jowian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJowian
6th mode:
Scale 2827
Scale 2827: Runian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRunian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 187

Scale 187Scale 187: Bedian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBedian


The hexatonic modal family [3461, 1889, 187, 2141, 1559, 2827] (Forte: 6-Z10) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [317, 977, 1103, 2599, 3347, 3721] (Forte: 6-Z39)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3461 is 1079

Scale 1079Scale 1079: Gowian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGowian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 3461 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 1079

Scale 1079Scale 1079: Gowian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGowian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 3461       T0I <11,0> 1079
T1 <1,1> 2827      T1I <11,1> 2158
T2 <1,2> 1559      T2I <11,2> 221
T3 <1,3> 3118      T3I <11,3> 442
T4 <1,4> 2141      T4I <11,4> 884
T5 <1,5> 187      T5I <11,5> 1768
T6 <1,6> 374      T6I <11,6> 3536
T7 <1,7> 748      T7I <11,7> 2977
T8 <1,8> 1496      T8I <11,8> 1859
T9 <1,9> 2992      T9I <11,9> 3718
T10 <1,10> 1889      T10I <11,10> 3341
T11 <1,11> 3778      T11I <11,11> 2587
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3221      T0MI <7,0> 1319
T1M <5,1> 2347      T1MI <7,1> 2638
T2M <5,2> 599      T2MI <7,2> 1181
T3M <5,3> 1198      T3MI <7,3> 2362
T4M <5,4> 2396      T4MI <7,4> 629
T5M <5,5> 697      T5MI <7,5> 1258
T6M <5,6> 1394      T6MI <7,6> 2516
T7M <5,7> 2788      T7MI <7,7> 937
T8M <5,8> 1481      T8MI <7,8> 1874
T9M <5,9> 2962      T9MI <7,9> 3748
T10M <5,10> 1829      T10MI <7,10> 3401
T11M <5,11> 3658      T11MI <7,11> 2707

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 3463Scale 3463: Vofian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVofian
Scale 3457Scale 3457: Vobian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVobian
Scale 3459Scale 3459: Vocian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVocian
Scale 3465Scale 3465: Katathimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatathimic
Scale 3469Scale 3469: Monian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMonian
Scale 3477Scale 3477: Kyptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKyptian
Scale 3493Scale 3493: Rathian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRathian
Scale 3525Scale 3525: Zocrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZocrian
Scale 3333Scale 3333: Vacian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVacian
Scale 3397Scale 3397: Sydimic, Ian Ring Music TheorySydimic
Scale 3205Scale 3205: Utwian, Ian Ring Music TheoryUtwian
Scale 3717Scale 3717: Xidian, Ian Ring Music TheoryXidian
Scale 3973Scale 3973: Zehian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZehian
Scale 2437Scale 2437: Pafian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPafian
Scale 2949Scale 2949: Sikian, Ian Ring Music TheorySikian
Scale 1413Scale 1413: Iruian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIruian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.