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Scale 3119

Scale 3119, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,2,3,5,10,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-2

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 3719

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

5 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

4 (multicohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

4

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 191

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Formula

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 1, 2, 5, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<5, 5, 4, 3, 3, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p3m3n4s5d5t

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,5}
<2> = {2,3,6,7}
<3> = {3,4,7,8}
<4> = {4,5,8,9}
<5> = {5,6,9,10}
<6> = {7,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

4

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

1.933

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.52

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsA♯{10,2,5}210.67
Minor Triadsa♯m{10,1,5}121
Diminished Triads{11,2,5}121

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {0,3}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 3119. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 a#m a#m A# A# a#m->A# A#->b°

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter2
Radius1
Self-Centeredno
Central VerticesA♯
Peripheral Verticesa♯m, b°

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3119 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 3607
Scale 3607, Ian Ring Music Theory
3rd mode:
Scale 3851
Scale 3851, Ian Ring Music Theory
4th mode:
Scale 3973
Scale 3973, Ian Ring Music Theory
5th mode:
Scale 2017
Scale 2017, Ian Ring Music Theory
6th mode:
Scale 191
Scale 191, Ian Ring Music TheoryThis is the prime mode
7th mode:
Scale 2143
Scale 2143, Ian Ring Music Theory

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 191

Scale 191Scale 191, Ian Ring Music Theory

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [3119, 3607, 3851, 3973, 2017, 191, 2143] (Forte: 7-2) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [47, 1921, 2071, 3083, 3589] (Forte: 5-2)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3119 is 3719

Scale 3719Scale 3719, Ian Ring Music Theory

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 3119 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 3719

Scale 3719Scale 3719, Ian Ring Music Theory

Transformations:

T0 3119  T0I 3719
T1 2143  T1I 3343
T2 191  T2I 2591
T3 382  T3I 1087
T4 764  T4I 2174
T5 1528  T5I 253
T6 3056  T6I 506
T7 2017  T7I 1012
T8 4034  T8I 2024
T9 3973  T9I 4048
T10 3851  T10I 4001
T11 3607  T11I 3907

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 3117Scale 3117, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3115Scale 3115, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3111Scale 3111, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3127Scale 3127, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3135Scale 3135: Octatonic Chromatic 3, Ian Ring Music TheoryOctatonic Chromatic 3
Scale 3087Scale 3087: Hexatonic Chromatic 3, Ian Ring Music TheoryHexatonic Chromatic 3
Scale 3103Scale 3103: Heptatonic Chromatic 3, Ian Ring Music TheoryHeptatonic Chromatic 3
Scale 3151Scale 3151: Pacrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPacrian
Scale 3183Scale 3183: Mixonyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMixonyllic
Scale 3247Scale 3247: Aeolonyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeolonyllic
Scale 3375Scale 3375, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3631Scale 3631: Gydyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryGydyllic
Scale 2095Scale 2095, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 2607Scale 2607: Aerolian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerolian
Scale 1071Scale 1071, Ian Ring Music Theory

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy.