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Scale 191: "Begian"

Scale 191: Begian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 4001


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

5 (multihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

4 (multicohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.



Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 5]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<5, 5, 4, 3, 3, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,5}
<2> = {2,3,6,7}
<3> = {3,4,7,8}
<4> = {4,5,8,9}
<5> = {5,6,9,10}
<6> = {7,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(62, 25, 86)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsC{0,4,7}210.67
Minor Triadscm{0,3,7}121
Diminished Triadsc♯°{1,4,7}121

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {2,5}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 191. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 cm cm C C cm->C c#° c#° C->c#°

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Central VerticesC
Peripheral Verticescm, c♯°


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 191 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 2143
Scale 2143: Napian, Ian Ring Music TheoryNapian
3rd mode:
Scale 3119
Scale 3119: Tikian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTikian
4th mode:
Scale 3607
Scale 3607: Wopian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWopian
5th mode:
Scale 3851
Scale 3851: Yilian, Ian Ring Music TheoryYilian
6th mode:
Scale 3973
Scale 3973: Zehian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZehian
7th mode:
Scale 2017
Scale 2017: Meqian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMeqian


This is the prime form of this scale.


The heptatonic modal family [191, 2143, 3119, 3607, 3851, 3973, 2017] (Forte: 7-2) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [47, 1921, 2071, 3083, 3589] (Forte: 5-2)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 191 is 4001

Scale 4001Scale 4001: Ziyian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZiyian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 191 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 4001

Scale 4001Scale 4001: Ziyian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZiyian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 191       T0I <11,0> 4001
T1 <1,1> 382      T1I <11,1> 3907
T2 <1,2> 764      T2I <11,2> 3719
T3 <1,3> 1528      T3I <11,3> 3343
T4 <1,4> 3056      T4I <11,4> 2591
T5 <1,5> 2017      T5I <11,5> 1087
T6 <1,6> 4034      T6I <11,6> 2174
T7 <1,7> 3973      T7I <11,7> 253
T8 <1,8> 3851      T8I <11,8> 506
T9 <1,9> 3607      T9I <11,9> 1012
T10 <1,10> 3119      T10I <11,10> 2024
T11 <1,11> 2143      T11I <11,11> 4048
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3371      T0MI <7,0> 2711
T1M <5,1> 2647      T1MI <7,1> 1327
T2M <5,2> 1199      T2MI <7,2> 2654
T3M <5,3> 2398      T3MI <7,3> 1213
T4M <5,4> 701      T4MI <7,4> 2426
T5M <5,5> 1402      T5MI <7,5> 757
T6M <5,6> 2804      T6MI <7,6> 1514
T7M <5,7> 1513      T7MI <7,7> 3028
T8M <5,8> 3026      T8MI <7,8> 1961
T9M <5,9> 1957      T9MI <7,9> 3922
T10M <5,10> 3914      T10MI <7,10> 3749
T11M <5,11> 3733      T11MI <7,11> 3403

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 189Scale 189: Befian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBefian
Scale 187Scale 187: Bedian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBedian
Scale 183Scale 183: Bebian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBebian
Scale 175Scale 175: Bewian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBewian
Scale 159Scale 159: Bamian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBamian
Scale 223Scale 223: Bizian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBizian
Scale 255Scale 255: Chromatic Octamode, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Octamode
Scale 63Scale 63: Hexatonic Chromatic, Ian Ring Music TheoryHexatonic Chromatic
Scale 127Scale 127: Heptatonic Chromatic, Ian Ring Music TheoryHeptatonic Chromatic
Scale 319Scale 319: Epodian, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpodian
Scale 447Scale 447: Thyphyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryThyphyllic
Scale 703Scale 703: Aerocryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerocryllic
Scale 1215Scale 1215: Hibian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHibian
Scale 2239Scale 2239: Dacryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDacryllic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.