The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 463: "Zythian"

Scale 463: Zythian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Zeitler
Zythian
Dozenal
Curian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,2,3,6,7,8}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-7

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 3697

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

5 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

3 (tricohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

2

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

yes

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 4]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<5, 3, 2, 3, 5, 3>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p5m3n2s3d5t3

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,3,4}
<2> = {2,4,5}
<3> = {3,5,6}
<4> = {6,7,9}
<5> = {7,8,10}
<6> = {8,9,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2.571

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.183

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.734

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(22, 27, 84)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsG♯{8,0,3}121
Minor Triadscm{0,3,7}210.67
Diminished Triads{0,3,6}121

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {1,2}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 463. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 cm cm c°->cm G# G# cm->G#

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter2
Radius1
Self-Centeredno
Central Verticescm
Peripheral Verticesc°, G♯

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 463 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 2279
Scale 2279: Dyrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDyrian
3rd mode:
Scale 3187
Scale 3187: Koptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKoptian
4th mode:
Scale 3641
Scale 3641: Thocrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryThocrian
5th mode:
Scale 967
Scale 967: Mela Salaga, Ian Ring Music TheoryMela Salaga
6th mode:
Scale 2531
Scale 2531: Danian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDanian
7th mode:
Scale 3313
Scale 3313: Aeolacrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeolacrian

Prime

This is the prime form of this scale.

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [463, 2279, 3187, 3641, 967, 2531, 3313] (Forte: 7-7) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [199, 451, 2147, 2273, 3121] (Forte: 5-7)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 463 is 3697

Scale 3697Scale 3697: Ionarian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonarian

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 463 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 3697

Scale 3697Scale 3697: Ionarian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonarian

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 463       T0I <11,0> 3697
T1 <1,1> 926      T1I <11,1> 3299
T2 <1,2> 1852      T2I <11,2> 2503
T3 <1,3> 3704      T3I <11,3> 911
T4 <1,4> 3313      T4I <11,4> 1822
T5 <1,5> 2531      T5I <11,5> 3644
T6 <1,6> 967      T6I <11,6> 3193
T7 <1,7> 1934      T7I <11,7> 2291
T8 <1,8> 3868      T8I <11,8> 487
T9 <1,9> 3641      T9I <11,9> 974
T10 <1,10> 3187      T10I <11,10> 1948
T11 <1,11> 2279      T11I <11,11> 3896
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3193      T0MI <7,0> 967
T1M <5,1> 2291      T1MI <7,1> 1934
T2M <5,2> 487      T2MI <7,2> 3868
T3M <5,3> 974      T3MI <7,3> 3641
T4M <5,4> 1948      T4MI <7,4> 3187
T5M <5,5> 3896      T5MI <7,5> 2279
T6M <5,6> 3697      T6MI <7,6> 463
T7M <5,7> 3299      T7MI <7,7> 926
T8M <5,8> 2503      T8MI <7,8> 1852
T9M <5,9> 911      T9MI <7,9> 3704
T10M <5,10> 1822      T10MI <7,10> 3313
T11M <5,11> 3644      T11MI <7,11> 2531

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T6MI

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 461Scale 461: Raga Syamalam, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Syamalam
Scale 459Scale 459: Zaptimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZaptimic
Scale 455Scale 455: Messiaen Mode 5, Ian Ring Music TheoryMessiaen Mode 5
Scale 471Scale 471: Dodian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDodian
Scale 479Scale 479: Kocryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKocryllic
Scale 495Scale 495: Bocryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryBocryllic
Scale 399Scale 399: Zynimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZynimic
Scale 431Scale 431: Epyrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpyrian
Scale 335Scale 335: Zanimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZanimic
Scale 207Scale 207: Beqian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBeqian
Scale 719Scale 719: Kanian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKanian
Scale 975Scale 975: Messiaen Mode 4, Ian Ring Music TheoryMessiaen Mode 4
Scale 1487Scale 1487: Mothyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMothyllic
Scale 2511Scale 2511: Aeroptyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeroptyllic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.