The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 459: "Zaptimic"

Scale 459: Zaptimic, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Zeitler
Zaptimic
Dozenal
Cupian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

6 (hexatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,3,6,7,8}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

6-18

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 2673

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

3 (trihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

1 (uncohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

2

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

5

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 423

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 2, 3, 1, 1, 4]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<3, 2, 2, 2, 4, 2>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p4m2n2s2d3t2

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,3,4}
<2> = {2,3,4,5}
<3> = {5,6,7}
<4> = {7,8,9,10}
<5> = {8,9,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2.333

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.116

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.699

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(6, 12, 57)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsG♯{8,0,3}121
Minor Triadscm{0,3,7}210.67
Diminished Triads{0,3,6}121

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {1}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 459. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 cm cm c°->cm G# G# cm->G#

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter2
Radius1
Self-Centeredno
Central Verticescm
Peripheral Verticesc°, G♯

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 459 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 2277
Scale 2277: Kagimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKagimic
3rd mode:
Scale 1593
Scale 1593: Zogimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZogimic
4th mode:
Scale 711
Scale 711: Raga Chandrajyoti, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Chandrajyoti
5th mode:
Scale 2403
Scale 2403: Lycrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLycrimic
6th mode:
Scale 3249
Scale 3249: Raga Tilang, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Tilang

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 423

Scale 423Scale 423: Sogimic, Ian Ring Music TheorySogimic

Complement

The hexatonic modal family [459, 2277, 1593, 711, 2403, 3249] (Forte: 6-18) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [423, 909, 1251, 2259, 2673, 3177] (Forte: 6-18)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 459 is 2673

Scale 2673Scale 2673: Mythimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMythimic

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 459 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 2673

Scale 2673Scale 2673: Mythimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMythimic

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 459       T0I <11,0> 2673
T1 <1,1> 918      T1I <11,1> 1251
T2 <1,2> 1836      T2I <11,2> 2502
T3 <1,3> 3672      T3I <11,3> 909
T4 <1,4> 3249      T4I <11,4> 1818
T5 <1,5> 2403      T5I <11,5> 3636
T6 <1,6> 711      T6I <11,6> 3177
T7 <1,7> 1422      T7I <11,7> 2259
T8 <1,8> 2844      T8I <11,8> 423
T9 <1,9> 1593      T9I <11,9> 846
T10 <1,10> 3186      T10I <11,10> 1692
T11 <1,11> 2277      T11I <11,11> 3384
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 2169      T0MI <7,0> 963
T1M <5,1> 243      T1MI <7,1> 1926
T2M <5,2> 486      T2MI <7,2> 3852
T3M <5,3> 972      T3MI <7,3> 3609
T4M <5,4> 1944      T4MI <7,4> 3123
T5M <5,5> 3888      T5MI <7,5> 2151
T6M <5,6> 3681      T6MI <7,6> 207
T7M <5,7> 3267      T7MI <7,7> 414
T8M <5,8> 2439      T8MI <7,8> 828
T9M <5,9> 783      T9MI <7,9> 1656
T10M <5,10> 1566      T10MI <7,10> 3312
T11M <5,11> 3132      T11MI <7,11> 2529

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 457Scale 457: Staptitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryStaptitonic
Scale 461Scale 461: Raga Syamalam, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Syamalam
Scale 463Scale 463: Zythian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZythian
Scale 451Scale 451: Raga Saugandhini, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Saugandhini
Scale 455Scale 455: Messiaen Mode 5, Ian Ring Music TheoryMessiaen Mode 5
Scale 467Scale 467: Raga Dhavalangam, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Dhavalangam
Scale 475Scale 475: Aeolygian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeolygian
Scale 491Scale 491: Aeolyrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeolyrian
Scale 395Scale 395: Phrygian Pentatonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhrygian Pentatonic
Scale 427Scale 427: Raga Suddha Simantini, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Suddha Simantini
Scale 331Scale 331: Raga Chhaya Todi, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Chhaya Todi
Scale 203Scale 203: Ichian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIchian
Scale 715Scale 715: Messiaen Truncated Mode 2, Ian Ring Music TheoryMessiaen Truncated Mode 2
Scale 971Scale 971: Mela Gavambodhi, Ian Ring Music TheoryMela Gavambodhi
Scale 1483Scale 1483: Mela Bhavapriya, Ian Ring Music TheoryMela Bhavapriya
Scale 2507Scale 2507: Todi That, Ian Ring Music TheoryTodi That

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.