The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 541: "Demian"

Scale 541: Demian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names




Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

5 (pentatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 1801


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

2 (dihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

1 (uncohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

prime: 151


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 1, 1, 5, 3]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,3,5}
<2> = {2,3,5,6,8}
<3> = {4,6,7,9,10}
<4> = {7,9,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(13, 7, 38)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Minor Triadsam{9,0,4}110.5
Diminished Triads{9,0,3}110.5

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {2}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 541. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 am am a°->am

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.



Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 541 can be rotated to make 4 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 1159
Scale 1159: Hasian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHasian
3rd mode:
Scale 2627
Scale 2627: Qerian, Ian Ring Music TheoryQerian
4th mode:
Scale 3361
Scale 3361: Vatian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVatian
5th mode:
Scale 233
Scale 233: Bigian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBigian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 151

Scale 151Scale 151: Bahian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBahian


The pentatonic modal family [541, 1159, 2627, 3361, 233] (Forte: 5-Z36) is the complement of the heptatonic modal family [367, 1777, 1931, 2231, 3013, 3163, 3629] (Forte: 7-Z36)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 541 is 1801

Scale 1801Scale 1801: Lanian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLanian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 541 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 1801

Scale 1801Scale 1801: Lanian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLanian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 541       T0I <11,0> 1801
T1 <1,1> 1082      T1I <11,1> 3602
T2 <1,2> 2164      T2I <11,2> 3109
T3 <1,3> 233      T3I <11,3> 2123
T4 <1,4> 466      T4I <11,4> 151
T5 <1,5> 932      T5I <11,5> 302
T6 <1,6> 1864      T6I <11,6> 604
T7 <1,7> 3728      T7I <11,7> 1208
T8 <1,8> 3361      T8I <11,8> 2416
T9 <1,9> 2627      T9I <11,9> 737
T10 <1,10> 1159      T10I <11,10> 1474
T11 <1,11> 2318      T11I <11,11> 2948
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1801      T0MI <7,0> 541
T1M <5,1> 3602      T1MI <7,1> 1082
T2M <5,2> 3109      T2MI <7,2> 2164
T3M <5,3> 2123      T3MI <7,3> 233
T4M <5,4> 151      T4MI <7,4> 466
T5M <5,5> 302      T5MI <7,5> 932
T6M <5,6> 604      T6MI <7,6> 1864
T7M <5,7> 1208      T7MI <7,7> 3728
T8M <5,8> 2416      T8MI <7,8> 3361
T9M <5,9> 737      T9MI <7,9> 2627
T10M <5,10> 1474      T10MI <7,10> 1159
T11M <5,11> 2948      T11MI <7,11> 2318

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T0MI

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 543Scale 543: Denian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDenian
Scale 537Scale 537: Atuian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAtuian
Scale 539Scale 539: Delian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDelian
Scale 533Scale 533: Dehian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDehian
Scale 525Scale 525: Idwian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIdwian
Scale 557Scale 557: Raga Abhogi, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Abhogi
Scale 573Scale 573: Saptimic, Ian Ring Music TheorySaptimic
Scale 605Scale 605: Dycrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDycrimic
Scale 669Scale 669: Gycrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryGycrimic
Scale 797Scale 797: Katocrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatocrimic
Scale 29Scale 29: Aduian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAduian
Scale 285Scale 285: Zaritonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZaritonic
Scale 1053Scale 1053: Gigian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGigian
Scale 1565Scale 1565: Jozian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJozian
Scale 2589Scale 2589: Puvian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPuvian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.