 The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about...

# Scale 117: "Anbian"

### Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

### Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Dozenal
Anbian

## Analysis

#### Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

5 (pentatonic)

#### Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,2,4,5,6}

#### Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

5-9

#### Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

#### Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

#### Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

#### Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 1473

#### Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

2 (dihemitonic)

#### Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

1 (uncohemitonic)

#### Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

4

#### Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

4

#### Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

no
prime: 87

#### Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

#### Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.

no

#### Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 2, 1, 1, 6]

#### Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<2, 3, 1, 2, 1, 1>

#### Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

pm2ns3d2t

#### Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,6}
<2> = {2,3,4,7,8}
<3> = {4,5,8,9,10}
<4> = {6,10,11}

#### Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

4.4

#### Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

#### Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

#### Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

1.366

#### Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.035

#### Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

#### Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

#### Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

#### Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

#### Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(14, 7, 36)

There are no common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that can be formed using notes in this scale.

## Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 117 can be rotated to make 4 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

 2nd mode:Scale 1053 Gigian 3rd mode:Scale 1287 Hutian 4th mode:Scale 2691 Rahian 5th mode:Scale 3393 Venian

## Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 87

 Scale 87 Asrian

## Complement

The pentatonic modal family [117, 1053, 1287, 2691, 3393] (Forte: 5-9) is the complement of the heptatonic modal family [351, 1521, 1989, 2223, 3159, 3627, 3861] (Forte: 7-9)

## Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 117 is 1473

 Scale 1473 Javian

## Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 117 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 1473

 Scale 1473 Javian

## Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 117       T0I <11,0> 1473
T1 <1,1> 234      T1I <11,1> 2946
T2 <1,2> 468      T2I <11,2> 1797
T3 <1,3> 936      T3I <11,3> 3594
T4 <1,4> 1872      T4I <11,4> 3093
T5 <1,5> 3744      T5I <11,5> 2091
T6 <1,6> 3393      T6I <11,6> 87
T7 <1,7> 2691      T7I <11,7> 174
T8 <1,8> 1287      T8I <11,8> 348
T9 <1,9> 2574      T9I <11,9> 696
T10 <1,10> 1053      T10I <11,10> 1392
T11 <1,11> 2106      T11I <11,11> 2784
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1347      T0MI <7,0> 2133
T1M <5,1> 2694      T1MI <7,1> 171
T2M <5,2> 1293      T2MI <7,2> 342
T3M <5,3> 2586      T3MI <7,3> 684
T4M <5,4> 1077      T4MI <7,4> 1368
T5M <5,5> 2154      T5MI <7,5> 2736
T6M <5,6> 213      T6MI <7,6> 1377
T7M <5,7> 426      T7MI <7,7> 2754
T8M <5,8> 852      T8MI <7,8> 1413
T9M <5,9> 1704      T9MI <7,9> 2826
T10M <5,10> 3408      T10MI <7,10> 1557
T11M <5,11> 2721      T11MI <7,11> 3114

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

## Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

 Scale 119 Smoian Scale 113 Aruian Scale 115 Ashian Scale 121 Asoian Scale 125 Atwian Scale 101 Apoian Scale 109 Amsian Scale 85 Segian Scale 53 Absian Scale 181 Raga Budhamanohari Scale 245 Raga Dipak Scale 373 Epagimic Scale 629 Aeronimic Scale 1141 Rynimic Scale 2165 Necian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.