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Scale 351: "Epanian"

Scale 351: Epanian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

41161837294116105072918310504116183
Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Zeitler
Epanian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,2,3,4,6,8}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Alan Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-9

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 3921

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

4 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

3 (tricohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

4

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

yes

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Formula

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 4] 9

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<4, 5, 3, 4, 3, 2>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hansen.

p3m4n3s5d4t2

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,4}
<2> = {2,3,4,5,6}
<3> = {3,4,5,6,7,8}
<4> = {4,5,6,7,8,9}
<5> = {6,7,8,9,10}
<6> = {8,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

3.429

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.299

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.803

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsG♯{8,0,3}221
Minor Triadsc♯m{1,4,8}131.5
Augmented TriadsC+{0,4,8}221
Diminished Triads{0,3,6}131.5

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {2}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 351. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 G# G# c°->G# C+ C+ c#m c#m C+->c#m C+->G#

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter3
Radius2
Self-Centeredno
Central VerticesC+, G♯
Peripheral Verticesc°, c♯m

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 351 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 2223
Scale 2223: Konian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKonian
3rd mode:
Scale 3159
Scale 3159: Stocrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStocrian
4th mode:
Scale 3627
Scale 3627: Kalian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKalian
5th mode:
Scale 3861
Scale 3861: Phroptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhroptian
6th mode:
Scale 1989
Scale 1989: Dydian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDydian
7th mode:
Scale 1521
Scale 1521: Stanian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStanian

Prime

This is the prime form of this scale.

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [351, 2223, 3159, 3627, 3861, 1989, 1521] (Forte: 7-9) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [87, 1473, 1797, 2091, 3093] (Forte: 5-9)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 351 is 3921

Scale 3921Scale 3921: Pythian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPythian

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 351 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 3921

Scale 3921Scale 3921: Pythian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPythian

Transformations:

T0 351  T0I 3921
T1 702  T1I 3747
T2 1404  T2I 3399
T3 2808  T3I 2703
T4 1521  T4I 1311
T5 3042  T5I 2622
T6 1989  T6I 1149
T7 3978  T7I 2298
T8 3861  T8I 501
T9 3627  T9I 1002
T10 3159  T10I 2004
T11 2223  T11I 4008

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 349Scale 349: Borimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryBorimic
Scale 347Scale 347: Barimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryBarimic
Scale 343Scale 343: Ionorimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonorimic
Scale 335Scale 335: Zanimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZanimic
Scale 367Scale 367: Aerodian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerodian
Scale 383Scale 383: Logyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLogyllic
Scale 287Scale 287: Gynimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryGynimic
Scale 319Scale 319: Epodian, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpodian
Scale 415Scale 415: Aeoladian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeoladian
Scale 479Scale 479: Kocryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKocryllic
Scale 95Scale 95, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 223Scale 223, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 607Scale 607: Kadian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKadian
Scale 863Scale 863: Pyryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPyryllic
Scale 1375Scale 1375: Bothyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryBothyllic
Scale 2399Scale 2399: Zanyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZanyllic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy.