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Scale 2497: "PEQian"

Scale 2497: PEQian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).



Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

5 (pentatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 115


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

3 (trihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

1 (uncohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

prime: 103


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[6, 1, 1, 3, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<3, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1>

Proportional Saturation Vector

First described by Michael Buchler (2001), this is a vector showing the prominence of intervals relative to the maximum and minimum possible for the scale's cardinality. A saturation of 0 means the interval is present minimally, a saturation of 1 means it is the maximum possible.

<0.75, 0.25, 0.25, 0.333, 0.5, 0.5>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,3,6}
<2> = {2,4,7}
<3> = {5,8,10}
<4> = {6,9,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(16, 1, 30)

Coherence Quotient

The Coherence Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of coherence failures (ambiguity or contradiction) in the scale, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A high coherence quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a maximally complex scale.


Sameness Quotient

The Sameness Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of differences in the heteromorphic profile, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A higher quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a scale with maximum complexity.



This scale has no generator.

Common Triads

There are no common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that can be formed using notes in this scale.


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 2497 can be rotated to make 4 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 103
Scale 103: APUian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAPUianThis is the prime mode
3rd mode:
Scale 2099
Scale 2099: Raga Megharanji, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Megharanji
4th mode:
Scale 3097
Scale 3097: TIWian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTIWian
5th mode:
Scale 899
Scale 899: FOQian, Ian Ring Music TheoryFOQian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 103

Scale 103Scale 103: APUian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAPUian


The pentatonic modal family [2497, 103, 2099, 3097, 899] (Forte: 5-6) is the complement of the heptatonic modal family [415, 995, 2255, 2545, 3175, 3635, 3865] (Forte: 7-6)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 2497 is 115

Scale 115Scale 115: ASHian, Ian Ring Music TheoryASHian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 2497 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 115

Scale 115Scale 115: ASHian, Ian Ring Music TheoryASHian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 2497       T0I <11,0> 115
T1 <1,1> 899      T1I <11,1> 230
T2 <1,2> 1798      T2I <11,2> 460
T3 <1,3> 3596      T3I <11,3> 920
T4 <1,4> 3097      T4I <11,4> 1840
T5 <1,5> 2099      T5I <11,5> 3680
T6 <1,6> 103      T6I <11,6> 3265
T7 <1,7> 206      T7I <11,7> 2435
T8 <1,8> 412      T8I <11,8> 775
T9 <1,9> 824      T9I <11,9> 1550
T10 <1,10> 1648      T10I <11,10> 3100
T11 <1,11> 3296      T11I <11,11> 2105
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 2257      T0MI <7,0> 355
T1M <5,1> 419      T1MI <7,1> 710
T2M <5,2> 838      T2MI <7,2> 1420
T3M <5,3> 1676      T3MI <7,3> 2840
T4M <5,4> 3352      T4MI <7,4> 1585
T5M <5,5> 2609      T5MI <7,5> 3170
T6M <5,6> 1123      T6MI <7,6> 2245
T7M <5,7> 2246      T7MI <7,7> 395
T8M <5,8> 397      T8MI <7,8> 790
T9M <5,9> 794      T9MI <7,9> 1580
T10M <5,10> 1588      T10MI <7,10> 3160
T11M <5,11> 3176      T11MI <7,11> 2225

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 2499Scale 2499: PIRian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPIRian
Scale 2501Scale 2501: Ralimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryRalimic
Scale 2505Scale 2505: Mydimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMydimic
Scale 2513Scale 2513: Aerycrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerycrimic
Scale 2529Scale 2529: PIKian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPIKian
Scale 2433Scale 2433: PACian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPACian
Scale 2465Scale 2465: Raga Devaranjani, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Devaranjani
Scale 2369Scale 2369: OFFian, Ian Ring Music TheoryOFFian
Scale 2241Scale 2241: NOXian, Ian Ring Music TheoryNOXian
Scale 2753Scale 2753: RITian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRITian
Scale 3009Scale 3009: SUVian, Ian Ring Music TheorySUVian
Scale 3521Scale 3521: WANian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWANian
Scale 449Scale 449: CUJian, Ian Ring Music TheoryCUJian
Scale 1473Scale 1473: JAVian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJAVian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow and Lilypond, graph visualization by Graphviz, audio by TiMIDIty and FFMPEG. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.