The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory

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Scale 3425

Scale 3425, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).


Cardinality6 (hexatonic)
Pitch Class Set{0,5,6,8,10,11}
Forte Number6-Z12
Rotational Symmetrynone
Reflection Axesnone
enantiomorph: 215
Hemitonia3 (trihemitonic)
Cohemitonia1 (uncohemitonic)
prime: 215
Deep Scaleno
Interval Vector332232
Interval Spectrump3m2n2s3d3t2
Distribution Spectra<1> = {1,2,5}
<2> = {2,3,4,6}
<3> = {4,5,7,8}
<4> = {6,8,9,10}
<5> = {7,10,11}
Spectra Variation3.333
Maximally Evenno
Maximal Area Setno
Interior Area1.866
Myhill Propertyno
Ridge Tonesnone

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Minor Triadsfm{5,8,0}110.5
Diminished Triads{5,8,11}110.5
Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 3425. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 fm fm f°->fm

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.



Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3425 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 235
Scale 235, Ian Ring Music Theory
3rd mode:
Scale 2165
Scale 2165, Ian Ring Music Theory
4th mode:
Scale 1565
Scale 1565, Ian Ring Music Theory
5th mode:
Scale 1415
Scale 1415, Ian Ring Music Theory
6th mode:
Scale 2755
Scale 2755, Ian Ring Music Theory


The prime form of this scale is Scale 215

Scale 215Scale 215, Ian Ring Music Theory


The hexatonic modal family [3425, 235, 2165, 1565, 1415, 2755] (Forte: 6-Z12) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [335, 965, 1265, 2215, 3155, 3625] (Forte: 6-Z41)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3425 is 215

Scale 215Scale 215, Ian Ring Music Theory


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 3425 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 215

Scale 215Scale 215, Ian Ring Music Theory


T0 3425  T0I 215
T1 2755  T1I 430
T2 1415  T2I 860
T3 2830  T3I 1720
T4 1565  T4I 3440
T5 3130  T5I 2785
T6 2165  T6I 1475
T7 235  T7I 2950
T8 470  T8I 1805
T9 940  T9I 3610
T10 1880  T10I 3125
T11 3760  T11I 2155

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 3427Scale 3427: Zacrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZacrian
Scale 3429Scale 3429: Marian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMarian
Scale 3433Scale 3433: Thonian, Ian Ring Music TheoryThonian
Scale 3441Scale 3441: Thacrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryThacrian
Scale 3393Scale 3393, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3409Scale 3409: Katanimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatanimic
Scale 3361Scale 3361, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3489Scale 3489, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3553Scale 3553, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3169Scale 3169, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3297Scale 3297, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3681Scale 3681, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 3937Scale 3937, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 2401Scale 2401, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 2913Scale 2913, Ian Ring Music Theory
Scale 1377Scale 1377, Ian Ring Music Theory

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. The software used to generate this analysis is an open source project at GitHub. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy.