The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 3937: "Zalian"

Scale 3937: Zalian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Dozenal
Zalian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,5,6,8,9,10,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-4

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 223

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

5 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

3 (tricohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

4

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 223

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[5, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<5, 4, 4, 3, 3, 2>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p3m3n4s4d5t2

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,5}
<2> = {2,3,6}
<3> = {3,4,7,8}
<4> = {4,5,8,9}
<5> = {6,9,10}
<6> = {7,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

3.714

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

1.933

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.52

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(57, 26, 90)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsF{5,9,0}221
Minor Triadsfm{5,8,0}221
Diminished Triads{5,8,11}131.5
f♯°{6,9,0}131.5

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {10}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 3937. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 fm fm f°->fm F F fm->F f#° f#° F->f#°

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter3
Radius2
Self-Centeredno
Central Verticesfm, F
Peripheral Verticesf°, f♯°

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3937 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 251
Scale 251: Borian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBorian
3rd mode:
Scale 2173
Scale 2173: Nehian, Ian Ring Music TheoryNehian
4th mode:
Scale 1567
Scale 1567: Jobian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJobian
5th mode:
Scale 2831
Scale 2831: Ruqian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRuqian
6th mode:
Scale 3463
Scale 3463: Vofian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVofian
7th mode:
Scale 3779
Scale 3779, Ian Ring Music Theory

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 223

Scale 223Scale 223: Bizian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBizian

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [3937, 251, 2173, 1567, 2831, 3463, 3779] (Forte: 7-4) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [79, 961, 2087, 3091, 3593] (Forte: 5-4)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3937 is 223

Scale 223Scale 223: Bizian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBizian

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 3937 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 223

Scale 223Scale 223: Bizian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBizian

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 3937       T0I <11,0> 223
T1 <1,1> 3779      T1I <11,1> 446
T2 <1,2> 3463      T2I <11,2> 892
T3 <1,3> 2831      T3I <11,3> 1784
T4 <1,4> 1567      T4I <11,4> 3568
T5 <1,5> 3134      T5I <11,5> 3041
T6 <1,6> 2173      T6I <11,6> 1987
T7 <1,7> 251      T7I <11,7> 3974
T8 <1,8> 502      T8I <11,8> 3853
T9 <1,9> 1004      T9I <11,9> 3611
T10 <1,10> 2008      T10I <11,10> 3127
T11 <1,11> 4016      T11I <11,11> 2159
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 727      T0MI <7,0> 3433
T1M <5,1> 1454      T1MI <7,1> 2771
T2M <5,2> 2908      T2MI <7,2> 1447
T3M <5,3> 1721      T3MI <7,3> 2894
T4M <5,4> 3442      T4MI <7,4> 1693
T5M <5,5> 2789      T5MI <7,5> 3386
T6M <5,6> 1483      T6MI <7,6> 2677
T7M <5,7> 2966      T7MI <7,7> 1259
T8M <5,8> 1837      T8MI <7,8> 2518
T9M <5,9> 3674      T9MI <7,9> 941
T10M <5,10> 3253      T10MI <7,10> 1882
T11M <5,11> 2411      T11MI <7,11> 3764

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 3939Scale 3939: Dogyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDogyllic
Scale 3941Scale 3941: Stathyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryStathyllic
Scale 3945Scale 3945: Lydyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLydyllic
Scale 3953Scale 3953: Thagyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryThagyllic
Scale 3905Scale 3905: Yusian, Ian Ring Music TheoryYusian
Scale 3921Scale 3921: Pythian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPythian
Scale 3873Scale 3873: Yoyian, Ian Ring Music TheoryYoyian
Scale 4001Scale 4001: Ziyian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZiyian
Scale 4065Scale 4065: Octatonic Chromatic Descending, Ian Ring Music TheoryOctatonic Chromatic Descending
Scale 3681Scale 3681: Xahian, Ian Ring Music TheoryXahian
Scale 3809Scale 3809: Yelian, Ian Ring Music TheoryYelian
Scale 3425Scale 3425: Vihian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVihian
Scale 2913Scale 2913: Senian, Ian Ring Music TheorySenian
Scale 1889Scale 1889: Loqian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLoqian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.