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Scale 4021: "Raga Pahadi"

Scale 4021: Raga Pahadi, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Carnatic
Raga Pahadi
Dozenal
Zilian
Zeitler
Bagygic

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

9 (enneatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,2,4,5,7,8,9,10,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

9-7

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 1471

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

6 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

4 (multicohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

2

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

8

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 1471

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<6, 7, 7, 6, 7, 3>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p7m6n7s7d6t3

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2}
<2> = {2,3,4}
<3> = {3,4,5}
<4> = {4,5,6,7}
<5> = {5,6,7,8}
<6> = {7,8,9}
<7> = {8,9,10}
<8> = {10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

1.778

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

yes

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.799

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

6.106

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(25, 109, 196)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsC{0,4,7}242.38
E{4,8,11}442.13
F{5,9,0}342.44
G{7,11,2}442.31
A♯{10,2,5}342.44
Minor Triadsdm{2,5,9}342.44
em{4,7,11}442.19
fm{5,8,0}442.31
gm{7,10,2}342.44
am{9,0,4}242.56
Augmented TriadsC+{0,4,8}442.19
Diminished Triads{2,5,8}242.56
{4,7,10}242.56
{5,8,11}242.44
g♯°{8,11,2}242.44
{11,2,5}242.56
Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 4021. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 C C C+ C+ C->C+ em em C->em E E C+->E fm fm C+->fm am am C+->am dm dm d°->dm d°->fm F F dm->F A# A# dm->A# e°->em gm gm e°->gm em->E Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 4021. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 G em->G E->f° g#° g#° E->g#° f°->fm fm->F F->am gm->G gm->A# G->g#° G->b° A#->b°

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Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter4
Radius4
Self-Centeredyes

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 4021 can be rotated to make 8 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 2029
Scale 2029: Kiourdi, Ian Ring Music TheoryKiourdi
3rd mode:
Scale 1531
Scale 1531: Styptygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryStyptygic
4th mode:
Scale 2813
Scale 2813: Zolygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZolygic
5th mode:
Scale 1727
Scale 1727: Sydygic, Ian Ring Music TheorySydygic
6th mode:
Scale 2911
Scale 2911: Katygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatygic
7th mode:
Scale 3503
Scale 3503: Zyphygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZyphygic
8th mode:
Scale 3799
Scale 3799: Aeralygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeralygic
9th mode:
Scale 3947
Scale 3947: Ryptygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryRyptygic

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 1471

Scale 1471Scale 1471: Radygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryRadygic

Complement

The enneatonic modal family [4021, 2029, 1531, 2813, 1727, 2911, 3503, 3799, 3947] (Forte: 9-7) is the complement of the tritonic modal family [37, 641, 1033] (Forte: 3-7)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 4021 is 1471

Scale 1471Scale 1471: Radygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryRadygic

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 4021 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 1471

Scale 1471Scale 1471: Radygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryRadygic

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 4021       T0I <11,0> 1471
T1 <1,1> 3947      T1I <11,1> 2942
T2 <1,2> 3799      T2I <11,2> 1789
T3 <1,3> 3503      T3I <11,3> 3578
T4 <1,4> 2911      T4I <11,4> 3061
T5 <1,5> 1727      T5I <11,5> 2027
T6 <1,6> 3454      T6I <11,6> 4054
T7 <1,7> 2813      T7I <11,7> 4013
T8 <1,8> 1531      T8I <11,8> 3931
T9 <1,9> 3062      T9I <11,9> 3767
T10 <1,10> 2029      T10I <11,10> 3439
T11 <1,11> 4058      T11I <11,11> 2783
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3991      T0MI <7,0> 3391
T1M <5,1> 3887      T1MI <7,1> 2687
T2M <5,2> 3679      T2MI <7,2> 1279
T3M <5,3> 3263      T3MI <7,3> 2558
T4M <5,4> 2431      T4MI <7,4> 1021
T5M <5,5> 767      T5MI <7,5> 2042
T6M <5,6> 1534      T6MI <7,6> 4084
T7M <5,7> 3068      T7MI <7,7> 4073
T8M <5,8> 2041      T8MI <7,8> 4051
T9M <5,9> 4082      T9MI <7,9> 4007
T10M <5,10> 4069      T10MI <7,10> 3919
T11M <5,11> 4043      T11MI <7,11> 3743

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 4023Scale 4023: Styptyllian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStyptyllian
Scale 4017Scale 4017: Dolyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDolyllic
Scale 4019Scale 4019: Lonygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLonygic
Scale 4025Scale 4025: Kalygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKalygic
Scale 4029Scale 4029: Major/Minor Mixed, Ian Ring Music TheoryMajor/Minor Mixed
Scale 4005Scale 4005: Zibian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZibian
Scale 4013Scale 4013: Raga Pilu, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Pilu
Scale 3989Scale 3989: Sythyllic, Ian Ring Music TheorySythyllic
Scale 4053Scale 4053: Kyrygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKyrygic
Scale 4085Scale 4085: Rechberger's Decamode, Ian Ring Music TheoryRechberger's Decamode
Scale 3893Scale 3893: Phrocryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhrocryllic
Scale 3957Scale 3957: Porygic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPorygic
Scale 3765Scale 3765: Dominant Bebop, Ian Ring Music TheoryDominant Bebop
Scale 3509Scale 3509: Stogyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryStogyllic
Scale 2997Scale 2997: Major Bebop, Ian Ring Music TheoryMajor Bebop
Scale 1973Scale 1973: Zyryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZyryllic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.