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Scale 3357: "Phrodian"

Scale 3357: Phrodian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Zeitler
Phrodian
Dozenal
Varian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,2,3,4,8,10,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-13

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 1815

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

4 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

2 (dicohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

4

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 375

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 1, 1, 4, 2, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<4, 4, 3, 5, 3, 2>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p3m5n3s4d4t2

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,4}
<2> = {2,3,5,6}
<3> = {4,6,7}
<4> = {5,6,8}
<5> = {6,7,9,10}
<6> = {8,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2.857

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.299

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.803

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(38, 26, 90)

Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsE{4,8,11}221.2
G♯{8,0,3}221.2
Minor Triadsg♯m{8,11,3}321
Augmented TriadsC+{0,4,8}231.4
Diminished Triadsg♯°{8,11,2}131.6

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {10}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 3357. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 C+ C+ E E C+->E G# G# C+->G# g#m g#m E->g#m g#° g#° g#°->g#m g#m->G#

view full size

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter3
Radius2
Self-Centeredno
Central VerticesE, g♯m, G♯
Peripheral VerticesC+, g♯°

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3357 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 1863
Scale 1863: Pycrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPycrian
3rd mode:
Scale 2979
Scale 2979: Gyptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGyptian
4th mode:
Scale 3537
Scale 3537: Katogian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatogian
5th mode:
Scale 477
Scale 477: Stacrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStacrian
6th mode:
Scale 1143
Scale 1143: Styrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStyrian
7th mode:
Scale 2619
Scale 2619: Ionyrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonyrian

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 375

Scale 375Scale 375: Sodian, Ian Ring Music TheorySodian

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [3357, 1863, 2979, 3537, 477, 1143, 2619] (Forte: 7-13) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [279, 369, 1809, 2187, 3141] (Forte: 5-13)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3357 is 1815

Scale 1815Scale 1815: Godian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGodian

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 3357 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 1815

Scale 1815Scale 1815: Godian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGodian

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 3357       T0I <11,0> 1815
T1 <1,1> 2619      T1I <11,1> 3630
T2 <1,2> 1143      T2I <11,2> 3165
T3 <1,3> 2286      T3I <11,3> 2235
T4 <1,4> 477      T4I <11,4> 375
T5 <1,5> 954      T5I <11,5> 750
T6 <1,6> 1908      T6I <11,6> 1500
T7 <1,7> 3816      T7I <11,7> 3000
T8 <1,8> 3537      T8I <11,8> 1905
T9 <1,9> 2979      T9I <11,9> 3810
T10 <1,10> 1863      T10I <11,10> 3525
T11 <1,11> 3726      T11I <11,11> 2955
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1437      T0MI <7,0> 1845
T1M <5,1> 2874      T1MI <7,1> 3690
T2M <5,2> 1653      T2MI <7,2> 3285
T3M <5,3> 3306      T3MI <7,3> 2475
T4M <5,4> 2517      T4MI <7,4> 855
T5M <5,5> 939      T5MI <7,5> 1710
T6M <5,6> 1878      T6MI <7,6> 3420
T7M <5,7> 3756      T7MI <7,7> 2745
T8M <5,8> 3417      T8MI <7,8> 1395
T9M <5,9> 2739      T9MI <7,9> 2790
T10M <5,10> 1383      T10MI <7,10> 1485
T11M <5,11> 2766      T11MI <7,11> 2970

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 3359Scale 3359: Bonyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryBonyllic
Scale 3353Scale 3353: Phraptimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhraptimic
Scale 3355Scale 3355: Bagian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBagian
Scale 3349Scale 3349: Aeolocrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeolocrimic
Scale 3341Scale 3341: Vahian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVahian
Scale 3373Scale 3373: Lodian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLodian
Scale 3389Scale 3389: Socryllic, Ian Ring Music TheorySocryllic
Scale 3421Scale 3421: Aerothyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerothyllic
Scale 3485Scale 3485: Sabach, Ian Ring Music TheorySabach
Scale 3101Scale 3101: Tiyian, Ian Ring Music TheoryTiyian
Scale 3229Scale 3229: Aeolaptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeolaptian
Scale 3613Scale 3613: Wosian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWosian
Scale 3869Scale 3869: Bygyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryBygyllic
Scale 2333Scale 2333: Stynimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryStynimic
Scale 2845Scale 2845: Baptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBaptian
Scale 1309Scale 1309: Pogimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPogimic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.