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Scale 2235: "Exotic Minor"

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

• ATLian[0]
• Bedwell

• Alt 756[1]
• Exotic Minor[1]

• Bathian[2]
• Western Altered

• Superlocrian 567[3]
Name Sources
• [0] Pecot, Justin: The Dozenal Standard, 2nd editon. Available from justinpecot.com.
• [1] Bedwell, Robert: Modal Method of Music. 2023. Locrian Publishing, Brighton, East Sussex.
• [2] Zeitler, William: "all the scales". https://allthescales.org. Retrieved April 2024
• [3] Cochrane, Rich: Arpeggio and Scale Resources, a Guitar Encyclopedia. Big Noise Publishing, London UK.

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,3,4,5,7,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-13

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 2979

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

4 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

2 (dicohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

4

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number includes the scale itself, so the number is usually the same as its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are fewer modes.

7

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

no
prime: 375

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 4, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<4, 4, 3, 5, 3, 2>

Proportional Saturation Vector

First described by Michael Buchler (2001), this is a vector showing the prominence of intervals relative to the maximum and minimum possible for the scale's cardinality. A saturation of 0 means the interval is present minimally, a saturation of 1 means it is the maximum possible.

<0.5, 0.5, 0.25, 0.667, 0.25, 0.5>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p3m5n3s4d4t2

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,4}
<2> = {2,3,5,6}
<3> = {4,6,7}
<4> = {5,6,8}
<5> = {6,7,9,10}
<6> = {8,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2.857

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.299

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.803

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Centre of Gravity Distance

When tones of a scale are imagined as physical objects of equal weight arranged around a unit circle, this is the distance from the center of the circle to the center of gravity for all the tones. A perfectly balanced scale has a CoG distance of zero.

0.275979

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(38, 26, 90)

Coherence Quotient

The Coherence Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of coherence failures (ambiguity or contradiction) in the scale, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A high coherence quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a maximally complex scale.

0.543

Sameness Quotient

The Sameness Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of differences in the heteromorphic profile, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A higher quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a scale with maximum complexity.

0.286

Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony.

Generator

This scale has no generator.

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

em{4,7,11}221.2

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {5}

view full size

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter 3 2 no cm, C, em c♯°, D♯+

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 2235 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

 2nd mode:Scale 3165 Alt 276 3rd mode:Scale 1815 Alt 653 4th mode:Scale 2955 Neapoitan Major 54 5th mode:Scale 3525 Ionian +634 6th mode:Scale 1905 Lydian 7+32 7th mode:Scale 375 Infra-Alt 674 This is the prime mode

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 375

 Scale 375 Infra-Alt 674

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [2235, 3165, 1815, 2955, 3525, 1905, 375] (Forte: 7-13) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [279, 369, 1809, 2187, 3141] (Forte: 5-13)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 2235 is 2979

 Scale 2979 Ionian +234

Interval Matrix

Each row is a generic interval, cells contain the specific size of each generic. Useful for identifying contradictions and ambiguities.

Hierarchizability

Based on the work of Niels Verosky, hierarchizability is the measure of repeated patterns with "place-finding" remainder bits, applied recursively to the binary representation of a scale. For a full explanation, read Niels' paper, Hierarchizability as a Predictor of Scale Candidacy. The variable k is the maximum number of remainders allowed at each level of recursion, for them to count as an increment of hierarchizability. A high hierarchizability score is a good indicator of scale candidacy, ie a measure of usefulness for producing pleasing music. There is a strong correlation between scales with maximal hierarchizability and scales that are in popular use in a variety of world musical traditions.

kHierarchizabilityBreakdown PatternDiagram
11110111010001
21110111010001
31110111010001
43([1][1]0[1])([1][1]0[1])0001
53([1][1]0[1])([1][1]0[1])0001

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 2235 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 2979

 Scale 2979 Ionian +234

Center of Gravity

If tones of the scale are imagined as identical physical objects spaced around a unit circle, the center of gravity is the point where the scale is balanced.

Position with origin in the center (0.266575, -0.071429) 0.275979 75 250

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b. A note about the multipliers: multiplying by 1 changes nothing, multiplying by 11 produces the same result as inversion. 5 is the only non-degenerate multiplier, with the multiplier 7 producing the inverse of 5.

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 2235       T0I <11,0> 2979
T1 <1,1> 375      T1I <11,1> 1863
T2 <1,2> 750      T2I <11,2> 3726
T3 <1,3> 1500      T3I <11,3> 3357
T4 <1,4> 3000      T4I <11,4> 2619
T5 <1,5> 1905      T5I <11,5> 1143
T6 <1,6> 3810      T6I <11,6> 2286
T7 <1,7> 3525      T7I <11,7> 477
T8 <1,8> 2955      T8I <11,8> 954
T9 <1,9> 1815      T9I <11,9> 1908
T10 <1,10> 3630      T10I <11,10> 3816
T11 <1,11> 3165      T11I <11,11> 3537
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 2475      T0MI <7,0> 2739
T1M <5,1> 855      T1MI <7,1> 1383
T2M <5,2> 1710      T2MI <7,2> 2766
T3M <5,3> 3420      T3MI <7,3> 1437
T4M <5,4> 2745      T4MI <7,4> 2874
T5M <5,5> 1395      T5MI <7,5> 1653
T6M <5,6> 2790      T6MI <7,6> 3306
T7M <5,7> 1485      T7MI <7,7> 2517
T8M <5,8> 2970      T8MI <7,8> 939
T9M <5,9> 1845      T9MI <7,9> 1878
T10M <5,10> 3690      T10MI <7,10> 3756
T11M <5,11> 3285      T11MI <7,11> 3417

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

 Scale 2233 Donimic Scale 2237 Alt 2756 Scale 2239 Dacryllic Scale 2227 Raga Gaula Scale 2231 Arcadian Scale 2219 Phrydimic Scale 2203 Dorimic Scale 2267 Exotic Scale 2299 Phraptyllic Scale 2107 MUTian Scale 2171 Alt 756 Scale 2363 Unorthodox Scale 2491 Layllic Scale 2747 Stythyllic Scale 3259 Loptyllic Scale 187 BEDian Scale 1211 Ceiling Scale

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by Lilypond, graph visualization by Graphviz, audio by TiMIDIty and FFMPEG. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages were invented by living persons, and used here with permission where required.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (DOI, Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission.

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with naming the Carnatic ragas. Thanks to Niels Verosky for collaborating on the Hierarchizability diagrams. Thanks to u/howaboot for inventing the Center of Gravity metrics.