The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 2235: "Bathian"

Scale 2235: Bathian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Zeitler
Bathian
Dozenal
Atlian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,3,4,5,7,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-13

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 2979

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

4 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

2 (dicohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

4

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 375

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 4, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<4, 4, 3, 5, 3, 2>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p3m5n3s4d4t2

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,4}
<2> = {2,3,5,6}
<3> = {4,6,7}
<4> = {5,6,8}
<5> = {6,7,9,10}
<6> = {8,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2.857

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.299

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.803

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(38, 26, 90)

Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsC{0,4,7}321
Minor Triadscm{0,3,7}221.2
em{4,7,11}221.2
Augmented TriadsD♯+{3,7,11}231.4
Diminished Triadsc♯°{1,4,7}131.6

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {5}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 2235. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 cm cm C C cm->C D#+ D#+ cm->D#+ c#° c#° C->c#° em em C->em D#+->em

view full size

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter3
Radius2
Self-Centeredno
Central Verticescm, C, em
Peripheral Verticesc♯°, D♯+

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 2235 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 3165
Scale 3165: Mylian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMylian
3rd mode:
Scale 1815
Scale 1815: Godian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGodian
4th mode:
Scale 2955
Scale 2955: Thorian, Ian Ring Music TheoryThorian
5th mode:
Scale 3525
Scale 3525: Zocrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZocrian
6th mode:
Scale 1905
Scale 1905: Katacrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatacrian
7th mode:
Scale 375
Scale 375: Sodian, Ian Ring Music TheorySodianThis is the prime mode

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 375

Scale 375Scale 375: Sodian, Ian Ring Music TheorySodian

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [2235, 3165, 1815, 2955, 3525, 1905, 375] (Forte: 7-13) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [279, 369, 1809, 2187, 3141] (Forte: 5-13)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 2235 is 2979

Scale 2979Scale 2979: Gyptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGyptian

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 2235 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 2979

Scale 2979Scale 2979: Gyptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGyptian

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 2235       T0I <11,0> 2979
T1 <1,1> 375      T1I <11,1> 1863
T2 <1,2> 750      T2I <11,2> 3726
T3 <1,3> 1500      T3I <11,3> 3357
T4 <1,4> 3000      T4I <11,4> 2619
T5 <1,5> 1905      T5I <11,5> 1143
T6 <1,6> 3810      T6I <11,6> 2286
T7 <1,7> 3525      T7I <11,7> 477
T8 <1,8> 2955      T8I <11,8> 954
T9 <1,9> 1815      T9I <11,9> 1908
T10 <1,10> 3630      T10I <11,10> 3816
T11 <1,11> 3165      T11I <11,11> 3537
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 2475      T0MI <7,0> 2739
T1M <5,1> 855      T1MI <7,1> 1383
T2M <5,2> 1710      T2MI <7,2> 2766
T3M <5,3> 3420      T3MI <7,3> 1437
T4M <5,4> 2745      T4MI <7,4> 2874
T5M <5,5> 1395      T5MI <7,5> 1653
T6M <5,6> 2790      T6MI <7,6> 3306
T7M <5,7> 1485      T7MI <7,7> 2517
T8M <5,8> 2970      T8MI <7,8> 939
T9M <5,9> 1845      T9MI <7,9> 1878
T10M <5,10> 3690      T10MI <7,10> 3756
T11M <5,11> 3285      T11MI <7,11> 3417

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 2233Scale 2233: Donimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDonimic
Scale 2237Scale 2237: Epothian, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpothian
Scale 2239Scale 2239: Dacryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDacryllic
Scale 2227Scale 2227: Raga Gaula, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Gaula
Scale 2231Scale 2231: Macrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMacrian
Scale 2219Scale 2219: Phrydimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhrydimic
Scale 2203Scale 2203: Dorimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDorimic
Scale 2267Scale 2267: Padian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPadian
Scale 2299Scale 2299: Phraptyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhraptyllic
Scale 2107Scale 2107: Mutian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMutian
Scale 2171Scale 2171: Negian, Ian Ring Music TheoryNegian
Scale 2363Scale 2363: Kataptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKataptian
Scale 2491Scale 2491: Layllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLayllic
Scale 2747Scale 2747: Stythyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryStythyllic
Scale 3259Scale 3259: Ulian, Ian Ring Music TheoryUlian
Scale 187Scale 187: Bedian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBedian
Scale 1211Scale 1211: Zadian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZadian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.