The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

more than you ever wanted to know about...

Scale 2957: "Thygian"

Scale 2957: Thygian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Zeitler
Thygian
Dozenal
Sopian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,2,3,7,8,9,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-Z38

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 1595

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

4 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

1 (uncohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

3

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 439

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 1, 4, 1, 1, 2, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<4, 3, 4, 4, 4, 2>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p4m4n4s3d4t2

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,4}
<2> = {2,3,5}
<3> = {4,5,6,7}
<4> = {5,6,7,8}
<5> = {7,9,10}
<6> = {8,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2.571

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.299

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.803

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(27, 24, 90)

Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsG{7,11,2}241.86
G♯{8,0,3}331.43
Minor Triadscm{0,3,7}231.57
g♯m{8,11,3}321.29
Augmented TriadsD♯+{3,7,11}331.43
Diminished Triadsg♯°{8,11,2}231.71
{9,0,3}142.14
Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 2957. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 cm cm D#+ D#+ cm->D#+ G# G# cm->G# Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 2957. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 G D#+->G g#m g#m D#+->g#m g#° g#° G->g#° g#°->g#m g#m->G# G#->a°

view full size

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter4
Radius2
Self-Centeredno
Central Verticesg♯m
Peripheral VerticesG, a°

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 2957 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 1763
Scale 1763: Katalian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatalian
3rd mode:
Scale 2929
Scale 2929: Aeolathian, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeolathian
4th mode:
Scale 439
Scale 439: Bythian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBythianThis is the prime mode
5th mode:
Scale 2267
Scale 2267: Padian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPadian
6th mode:
Scale 3181
Scale 3181: Rolian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRolian
7th mode:
Scale 1819
Scale 1819: Pydian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPydian

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 439

Scale 439Scale 439: Bythian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBythian

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [2957, 1763, 2929, 439, 2267, 3181, 1819] (Forte: 7-Z38) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [295, 625, 905, 2195, 3145] (Forte: 5-Z38)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 2957 is 1595

Scale 1595Scale 1595: Dacrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDacrian

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 2957 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 1595

Scale 1595Scale 1595: Dacrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDacrian

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 2957       T0I <11,0> 1595
T1 <1,1> 1819      T1I <11,1> 3190
T2 <1,2> 3638      T2I <11,2> 2285
T3 <1,3> 3181      T3I <11,3> 475
T4 <1,4> 2267      T4I <11,4> 950
T5 <1,5> 439      T5I <11,5> 1900
T6 <1,6> 878      T6I <11,6> 3800
T7 <1,7> 1756      T7I <11,7> 3505
T8 <1,8> 3512      T8I <11,8> 2915
T9 <1,9> 2929      T9I <11,9> 1735
T10 <1,10> 1763      T10I <11,10> 3470
T11 <1,11> 3526      T11I <11,11> 2845
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3737      T0MI <7,0> 815
T1M <5,1> 3379      T1MI <7,1> 1630
T2M <5,2> 2663      T2MI <7,2> 3260
T3M <5,3> 1231      T3MI <7,3> 2425
T4M <5,4> 2462      T4MI <7,4> 755
T5M <5,5> 829      T5MI <7,5> 1510
T6M <5,6> 1658      T6MI <7,6> 3020
T7M <5,7> 3316      T7MI <7,7> 1945
T8M <5,8> 2537      T8MI <7,8> 3890
T9M <5,9> 979      T9MI <7,9> 3685
T10M <5,10> 1958      T10MI <7,10> 3275
T11M <5,11> 3916      T11MI <7,11> 2455

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 2959Scale 2959: Dygyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDygyllic
Scale 2953Scale 2953: Ionylimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonylimic
Scale 2955Scale 2955: Thorian, Ian Ring Music TheoryThorian
Scale 2949Scale 2949: Sikian, Ian Ring Music TheorySikian
Scale 2965Scale 2965: Darian, Ian Ring Music TheoryDarian
Scale 2973Scale 2973: Panyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPanyllic
Scale 2989Scale 2989: Bebop Minor, Ian Ring Music TheoryBebop Minor
Scale 3021Scale 3021: Stodyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryStodyllic
Scale 2829Scale 2829: Rupian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRupian
Scale 2893Scale 2893: Lylian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLylian
Scale 2701Scale 2701: Hawaiian, Ian Ring Music TheoryHawaiian
Scale 2445Scale 2445: Zadimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZadimic
Scale 3469Scale 3469: Monian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMonian
Scale 3981Scale 3981: Phrycryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhrycryllic
Scale 909Scale 909: Katarimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatarimic
Scale 1933Scale 1933: Mocrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryMocrian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.