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Scale 3737: "Phrocrian"

Scale 3737: Phrocrian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Zeitler
Phrocrian
Dozenal
Xuqian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,3,4,7,9,10,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-Z18

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 815

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

4 (multihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

2 (dicohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

3

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 755

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[3, 1, 3, 2, 1, 1, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<4, 3, 4, 4, 4, 2>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p4m4n4s3d4t2

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,3}
<2> = {2,3,4,5}
<3> = {3,4,5,6,7}
<4> = {5,6,7,8,9}
<5> = {7,8,9,10}
<6> = {9,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2.571

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.433

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.899

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(23, 34, 100)

Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsC{0,4,7}331.5
D♯{3,7,10}242
Minor Triadscm{0,3,7}331.5
em{4,7,11}331.5
am{9,0,4}242
Augmented TriadsD♯+{3,7,11}331.5
Diminished Triads{4,7,10}242
{9,0,3}242
Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 3737. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 cm cm C C cm->C D#+ D#+ cm->D#+ cm->a° em em C->em am am C->am D# D# D#->D#+ D#->e° D#+->em e°->em a°->am

view full size

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter4
Radius3
Self-Centeredno
Central Verticescm, C, D♯+, em
Peripheral VerticesD♯, e°, a°, am

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3737 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 979
Scale 979: Mela Dhavalambari, Ian Ring Music TheoryMela Dhavalambari
3rd mode:
Scale 2537
Scale 2537: Laptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLaptian
4th mode:
Scale 829
Scale 829: Lygian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLygian
5th mode:
Scale 1231
Scale 1231: Logian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLogian
6th mode:
Scale 2663
Scale 2663: Lalian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLalian
7th mode:
Scale 3379
Scale 3379: Verdi's Scala Enigmatica Descending, Ian Ring Music TheoryVerdi's Scala Enigmatica Descending

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 755

Scale 755Scale 755: Phrythian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhrythian

Complement

The heptatonic modal family [3737, 979, 2537, 829, 1231, 2663, 3379] (Forte: 7-Z18) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [179, 779, 1633, 2137, 2437] (Forte: 5-Z18)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3737 is 815

Scale 815Scale 815: Bolian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBolian

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 3737 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 815

Scale 815Scale 815: Bolian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBolian

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 3737       T0I <11,0> 815
T1 <1,1> 3379      T1I <11,1> 1630
T2 <1,2> 2663      T2I <11,2> 3260
T3 <1,3> 1231      T3I <11,3> 2425
T4 <1,4> 2462      T4I <11,4> 755
T5 <1,5> 829      T5I <11,5> 1510
T6 <1,6> 1658      T6I <11,6> 3020
T7 <1,7> 3316      T7I <11,7> 1945
T8 <1,8> 2537      T8I <11,8> 3890
T9 <1,9> 979      T9I <11,9> 3685
T10 <1,10> 1958      T10I <11,10> 3275
T11 <1,11> 3916      T11I <11,11> 2455
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 2957      T0MI <7,0> 1595
T1M <5,1> 1819      T1MI <7,1> 3190
T2M <5,2> 3638      T2MI <7,2> 2285
T3M <5,3> 3181      T3MI <7,3> 475
T4M <5,4> 2267      T4MI <7,4> 950
T5M <5,5> 439      T5MI <7,5> 1900
T6M <5,6> 878      T6MI <7,6> 3800
T7M <5,7> 1756      T7MI <7,7> 3505
T8M <5,8> 3512      T8MI <7,8> 2915
T9M <5,9> 2929      T9MI <7,9> 1735
T10M <5,10> 1763      T10MI <7,10> 3470
T11M <5,11> 3526      T11MI <7,11> 2845

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 3739Scale 3739: Epanyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryEpanyllic
Scale 3741Scale 3741: Zydyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZydyllic
Scale 3729Scale 3729: Starimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryStarimic
Scale 3733Scale 3733: Gycrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGycrian
Scale 3721Scale 3721: Phragimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhragimic
Scale 3753Scale 3753: Phraptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhraptian
Scale 3769Scale 3769: Eponyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryEponyllic
Scale 3801Scale 3801: Maptyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMaptyllic
Scale 3609Scale 3609: Woqian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWoqian
Scale 3673Scale 3673: Ranian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRanian
Scale 3865Scale 3865: Starian, Ian Ring Music TheoryStarian
Scale 3993Scale 3993: Ioniptyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryIoniptyllic
Scale 3225Scale 3225: Ionalimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonalimic
Scale 3481Scale 3481: Katathian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKatathian
Scale 2713Scale 2713: Porimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPorimic
Scale 1689Scale 1689: Lorimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLorimic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.