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# Scale 3599: "Heptatonic Chromatic 4" ### Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

### Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

## Common Names

Western Modern
Heptatonic Chromatic 4
Dozenal
Wikian

## Analysis

#### Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

#### Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,2,3,9,10,11}

#### Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-1

#### Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

#### Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



#### Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

yes

#### Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

no

#### Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

6 (multihemitonic)

#### Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

5 (multicohemitonic)

#### Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

5

#### Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

6

#### Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

no
prime: 127

#### Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

generator: 1
origin: 9

#### Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.

yes

#### Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 1, 6, 1, 1, 1]

#### Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1>

#### Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p2m3n4s5d6t

#### Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,6}
<2> = {2,7}
<3> = {3,8}
<4> = {4,9}
<5> = {5,10}
<6> = {6,11}

#### Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

4.286

#### Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

#### Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

#### Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

1.5

#### Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.106

#### Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

yes

#### Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

#### Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



#### Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

#### Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(69, 1, 56)

## Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony. ## Generator

This scale has a generator of 1, originating on 9.

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {1,2,10,11}

Since there is only one common triad in this scale, there are no opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads.

## Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 3599 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

 2nd mode:Scale 3847 Heptatonic Chromatic 5 3rd mode:Scale 3971 Heptatonic Chromatic 6 4th mode:Scale 4033 Heptatonic Chromatic Descending 5th mode:Scale 127 Heptatonic Chromatic This is the prime mode 6th mode:Scale 2111 Heptatonic Chromatic 2 7th mode:Scale 3103 Heptatonic Chromatic 3

## Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 127

 Scale 127 Heptatonic Chromatic

## Complement

The heptatonic modal family [3599, 3847, 3971, 4033, 127, 2111, 3103] (Forte: 7-1) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [31, 2063, 3079, 3587, 3841] (Forte: 5-1)

## Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 3599 is itself, because it is a palindromic scale!

 Scale 3599 Heptatonic Chromatic 4

## Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 3599       T0I <11,0> 3599
T1 <1,1> 3103      T1I <11,1> 3103
T2 <1,2> 2111      T2I <11,2> 2111
T3 <1,3> 127      T3I <11,3> 127
T4 <1,4> 254      T4I <11,4> 254
T5 <1,5> 508      T5I <11,5> 508
T6 <1,6> 1016      T6I <11,6> 1016
T7 <1,7> 2032      T7I <11,7> 2032
T8 <1,8> 4064      T8I <11,8> 4064
T9 <1,9> 4033      T9I <11,9> 4033
T10 <1,10> 3971      T10I <11,10> 3971
T11 <1,11> 3847      T11I <11,11> 3847
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1709      T0MI <7,0> 1709
T1M <5,1> 3418      T1MI <7,1> 3418
T2M <5,2> 2741      T2MI <7,2> 2741
T3M <5,3> 1387      T3MI <7,3> 1387
T4M <5,4> 2774      T4MI <7,4> 2774
T5M <5,5> 1453      T5MI <7,5> 1453
T6M <5,6> 2906      T6MI <7,6> 2906
T7M <5,7> 1717      T7MI <7,7> 1717
T8M <5,8> 3434      T8MI <7,8> 3434
T9M <5,9> 2773      T9MI <7,9> 2773
T10M <5,10> 1451      T10MI <7,10> 1451
T11M <5,11> 2902      T11MI <7,11> 2902

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T0I

## Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

 Scale 3597 Wijian Scale 3595 Wihian Scale 3591 Wifian Scale 3607 Wopian Scale 3615 Octatonic Chromatic 4 Scale 3631 Gydyllic Scale 3663 Sonyllic Scale 3727 Tholyllic Scale 3855 Octatonic Chromatic 5 Scale 3087 Hexatonic Chromatic 3 Scale 3343 Vajian Scale 2575 Pumian Scale 1551 Jorian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.