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# Scale 2773: "Lydian" ### Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

### Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

## Common Names

Western
Lydian
Modern Lydian
Hindustani
Kalyan That
Kalyan Theta
That Kalyan
Carnatic
Mela Mecakalyani
Raga Shuddh Kalyan
Mechalayani
Unknown / Unsorted
Ping
Gu
Rut biscale ascending
Japanese
Kung
Thailand
Thang Chawa
Ancient Greek
Greek Hypolydian
Greek Medieval Hypolocrian
Medieval
Medieval Lydian
Zeitler
Lydian
Dozenal
LYDian
Carnatic Melakarta
Mechakalyani
Carnatic Numbered Melakarta
65th Melakarta raga

## Analysis

#### Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

#### Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,2,4,6,7,9,11}

#### Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-35

#### Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

#### Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



#### Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

#### Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

no

#### Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

2 (dihemitonic)

#### Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

0 (ancohemitonic)

#### Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

1

#### Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number includes the scale itself, so the number is usually the same as its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are fewer modes.

7

#### Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

no
prime: 1387

#### Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

generator: 5
origin: 6

#### Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.

yes

#### Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1]

#### Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<2, 5, 4, 3, 6, 1>

#### Proportional Saturation Vector

First described by Michael Buchler (2001), this is a vector showing the prominence of intervals relative to the maximum and minimum possible for the scale's cardinality. A saturation of 0 means the interval is present minimally, a saturation of 1 means it is the maximum possible.

<0, 0.75, 0.5, 0, 1, 0>

#### Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p6m3n4s5d2t

#### Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2}
<2> = {3,4}
<3> = {5,6}
<4> = {6,7}
<5> = {8,9}
<6> = {10,11}

#### Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

0.857

#### Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

yes

#### Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

yes

#### Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.665

#### Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

6.035

#### Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

yes

#### Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

#### Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



#### Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Proper

#### Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(0, 1, 56)

#### Coherence Quotient

The Coherence Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of coherence failures (ambiguity or contradiction) in the scale, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A high coherence quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a maximally complex scale.

0.993

#### Sameness Quotient

The Sameness Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of differences in the heteromorphic profile, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A higher quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a scale with maximum complexity.

0.556

## Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony. ## Generator

This scale has a generator of 5, originating on 6.

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

D{2,6,9}231.71
G{7,11,2}231.71
am{9,0,4}231.71
bm{11,2,6}231.71

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter 3 3 yes

## Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale.Scale 2773 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

 2nd mode:Scale 1717 Mixolydian 3rd mode:Scale 1453 Aeolian 4th mode:Scale 1387 Locrian This is the prime mode 5th mode:Scale 2741 Major 6th mode:Scale 1709 Dorian 7th mode:Scale 1451 Phrygian

## Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 1387

 Scale 1387 Locrian

## Complement

The heptatonic modal family [2773, 1717, 1453, 1387, 2741, 1709, 1451] (Forte: 7-35) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [661, 677, 1189, 1193, 1321] (Forte: 5-35)

## Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 2773 is 1387

 Scale 1387 Locrian

## Hierarchizability

Based on the work of Niels Verosky, hierarchizability is the measure of repeated patterns with "place-finding" remainder bits, applied recursively to the binary representation of a scale. For a full explanation, read Niels' paper, Hierarchizability as a Predictor of Scale Candidacy. The variable k is the maximum number of remainders allowed at each level of recursion, for them to count as an increment of hierarchizability. A high hierarchizability score is a good indicator of scale candidacy, ie a measure of usefulness for producing pleasing music. There is a strong correlation between scales with maximal hierarchizability and scales that are in popular use in a variety of world musical traditions.

kHierarchizabilityBreakdown PatternDiagram
11101010110101
23(1)01(1)
33(1)01(1)
43(1)01(1)
53(1)01(1)

## Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b. A note about the multipliers: multiplying by 1 changes nothing, multiplying by 11 produces the same result as inversion. 5 is the only non-degenerate multiplier, with the multiplier 7 producing the inverse of 5.

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 2773       T0I <11,0> 1387
T1 <1,1> 1451      T1I <11,1> 2774
T2 <1,2> 2902      T2I <11,2> 1453
T3 <1,3> 1709      T3I <11,3> 2906
T4 <1,4> 3418      T4I <11,4> 1717
T5 <1,5> 2741      T5I <11,5> 3434
T6 <1,6> 1387      T6I <11,6> 2773
T7 <1,7> 2774      T7I <11,7> 1451
T8 <1,8> 1453      T8I <11,8> 2902
T9 <1,9> 2906      T9I <11,9> 1709
T10 <1,10> 1717      T10I <11,10> 3418
T11 <1,11> 3434      T11I <11,11> 2741
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 4033      T0MI <7,0> 127
T1M <5,1> 3971      T1MI <7,1> 254
T2M <5,2> 3847      T2MI <7,2> 508
T3M <5,3> 3599      T3MI <7,3> 1016
T4M <5,4> 3103      T4MI <7,4> 2032
T5M <5,5> 2111      T5MI <7,5> 4064
T6M <5,6> 127      T6MI <7,6> 4033
T7M <5,7> 254      T7MI <7,7> 3971
T8M <5,8> 508      T8MI <7,8> 3847
T9M <5,9> 1016      T9MI <7,9> 3599
T10M <5,10> 2032      T10MI <7,10> 3103
T11M <5,11> 4064      T11MI <7,11> 2111

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0, T6I

## Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

 Scale 2775 Quartal Octamode 10th Rotation Scale 2769 Dyrimic Scale 2771 Marva That Scale 2777 Aeolian Harmonic Scale 2781 Gycryllic Scale 2757 Raga Nishadi Scale 2765 Lydian Flat 3 Scale 2789 Zolian Scale 2805 Ichikotsuchô Scale 2709 Raga Kumud Scale 2741 Major Scale 2645 Raga Mruganandana Scale 2901 Lydian Augmented Scale 3029 Ionocryllic Scale 2261 Raga Caturangini Scale 2517 Harmonic Lydian Scale 3285 Lydian #6 Scale 3797 Spanish Octamode 8th Rotation Scale 725 Raga Yamuna Kalyani Scale 1749 Acoustic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow and Lilypond, graph visualization by Graphviz, audio by TiMIDIty and FFMPEG. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.

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