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Scale 2451: "Raga Bauli"

Scale 2451: Raga Bauli, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

Common Names

Carnatic
Raga Bauli
Zeitler
Aerynimic
Dozenal
Panian

Analysis

Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

6 (hexatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,1,4,7,8,11}

Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

6-Z44

Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 2355

Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

3 (trihemitonic)

Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

1 (uncohemitonic)

Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

3

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.

5

Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Rahn/Ring formula.

no
prime: 615

Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits.

no

Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 3, 3, 1, 3, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<3, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p3m4n3sd3t

Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,3}
<2> = {2,4,6}
<3> = {5,7}
<4> = {6,8,10}
<5> = {9,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2.333

Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.25

Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.796

Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Interval Spectra has exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

Balanced

A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.

no

Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(12, 1, 45)

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsC{0,4,7}321.17
E{4,8,11}231.5
Minor Triadsc♯m{1,4,8}231.5
em{4,7,11}231.5
Augmented TriadsC+{0,4,8}321.17
Diminished Triadsc♯°{1,4,7}231.5
Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 2451. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 C C C+ C+ C->C+ c#° c#° C->c#° em em C->em c#m c#m C+->c#m E E C+->E c#°->c#m em->E

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter3
Radius2
Self-Centeredno
Central VerticesC, C+
Peripheral Verticesc♯°, c♯m, em, E

Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 2451 can be rotated to make 5 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 3273
Scale 3273: Raga Jivantini, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Jivantini
3rd mode:
Scale 921
Scale 921: Bogimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryBogimic
4th mode:
Scale 627
Scale 627: Mogimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryMogimic
5th mode:
Scale 2361
Scale 2361: Docrimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDocrimic
6th mode:
Scale 807
Scale 807: Raga Suddha Mukhari, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Suddha Mukhari

Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 615

Scale 615Scale 615: Schoenberg Hexachord, Ian Ring Music TheorySchoenberg Hexachord

Complement

The hexatonic modal family [2451, 3273, 921, 627, 2361, 807] (Forte: 6-Z44) is the complement of the hexatonic modal family [411, 867, 1587, 2253, 2481, 2841] (Forte: 6-Z19)

Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 2451 is 2355

Scale 2355Scale 2355: Raga Lalita, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Lalita

Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 2451 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 2355

Scale 2355Scale 2355: Raga Lalita, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Lalita

Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 2451       T0I <11,0> 2355
T1 <1,1> 807      T1I <11,1> 615
T2 <1,2> 1614      T2I <11,2> 1230
T3 <1,3> 3228      T3I <11,3> 2460
T4 <1,4> 2361      T4I <11,4> 825
T5 <1,5> 627      T5I <11,5> 1650
T6 <1,6> 1254      T6I <11,6> 3300
T7 <1,7> 2508      T7I <11,7> 2505
T8 <1,8> 921      T8I <11,8> 915
T9 <1,9> 1842      T9I <11,9> 1830
T10 <1,10> 3684      T10I <11,10> 3660
T11 <1,11> 3273      T11I <11,11> 3225
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 2481      T0MI <7,0> 435
T1M <5,1> 867      T1MI <7,1> 870
T2M <5,2> 1734      T2MI <7,2> 1740
T3M <5,3> 3468      T3MI <7,3> 3480
T4M <5,4> 2841      T4MI <7,4> 2865
T5M <5,5> 1587      T5MI <7,5> 1635
T6M <5,6> 3174      T6MI <7,6> 3270
T7M <5,7> 2253      T7MI <7,7> 2445
T8M <5,8> 411      T8MI <7,8> 795
T9M <5,9> 822      T9MI <7,9> 1590
T10M <5,10> 1644      T10MI <7,10> 3180
T11M <5,11> 3288      T11MI <7,11> 2265

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 2449Scale 2449: Zacritonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZacritonic
Scale 2453Scale 2453: Raga Latika, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Latika
Scale 2455Scale 2455: Bothian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBothian
Scale 2459Scale 2459: Ionocrian, Ian Ring Music TheoryIonocrian
Scale 2435Scale 2435: Raga Deshgaur, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Deshgaur
Scale 2443Scale 2443: Panimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPanimic
Scale 2467Scale 2467: Raga Padi, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Padi
Scale 2483Scale 2483: Double Harmonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDouble Harmonic
Scale 2515Scale 2515: Chromatic Hypolydian, Ian Ring Music TheoryChromatic Hypolydian
Scale 2323Scale 2323: Doptitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDoptitonic
Scale 2387Scale 2387: Paptimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPaptimic
Scale 2195Scale 2195: Zalitonic, Ian Ring Music TheoryZalitonic
Scale 2707Scale 2707: Banimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryBanimic
Scale 2963Scale 2963: Bygian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBygian
Scale 3475Scale 3475: Kylian, Ian Ring Music TheoryKylian
Scale 403Scale 403: Raga Reva, Ian Ring Music TheoryRaga Reva
Scale 1427Scale 1427: Lolimic, Ian Ring Music TheoryLolimic

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow, graph visualization by Graphviz, and MIDI playback by MIDI.js. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler (http://allthescales.org) used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.