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Scale 2831: "RUQian"

Scale 2831: RUQian, Ian Ring Music Theory

Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).



Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11


Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.


Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.


Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.



A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.



A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

enantiomorph: 3611


A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

5 (multihemitonic)


A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

3 (tricohemitonic)


An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.



Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number does not include the scale itself, so the number is usually one less than its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are even fewer modes.


Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

prime: 223


Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.


Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.


Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[1, 1, 1, 5, 1, 2, 1]

Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<5, 4, 4, 3, 3, 2>

Proportional Saturation Vector

First described by Michael Buchler (2001), this is a vector showing the prominence of intervals relative to the maximum and minimum possible for the scale's cardinality. A saturation of 0 means the interval is present minimally, a saturation of 1 means it is the maximum possible.

<0.75, 0.5, 0.5, 0, 0.25, 0.5>

Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.


Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,5}
<2> = {2,3,6}
<3> = {3,4,7,8}
<4> = {4,5,8,9}
<5> = {6,9,10}
<6> = {7,10,11}

Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.


Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.


Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.


Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.


Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.


Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.



A scale is balanced if the distribution of its tones would satisfy the "centrifuge problem", ie are placed such that it would balance on its centre point.


Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.



Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".


Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(57, 26, 90)

Coherence Quotient

The Coherence Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of coherence failures (ambiguity or contradiction) in the scale, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A high coherence quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a maximally complex scale.


Sameness Quotient

The Sameness Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of differences in the heteromorphic profile, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A higher quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a scale with maximum complexity.


Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony.


This scale has no generator.

Common Triads

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

Triad TypeTriad*Pitch ClassesDegreeEccentricityCloseness Centrality
Major TriadsG♯{8,0,3}221
Minor Triadsg♯m{8,11,3}221
Diminished Triadsg♯°{8,11,2}131.5

The following pitch classes are not present in any of the common triads: {1}

Parsimonious Voice Leading Between Common Triads of Scale 2831. Created by Ian Ring ©2019 g#° g#° g#m g#m g#°->g#m G# G# g#m->G# G#->a°

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Central Verticesg♯m, G♯
Peripheral Verticesg♯°, a°


Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 2831 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

2nd mode:
Scale 3463
Scale 3463: VOFian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVOFian
3rd mode:
Scale 3779
Scale 3779: YASian, Ian Ring Music TheoryYASian
4th mode:
Scale 3937
Scale 3937: ZALian, Ian Ring Music TheoryZALian
5th mode:
Scale 251
Scale 251: BORian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBORian
6th mode:
Scale 2173
Scale 2173: NEHian, Ian Ring Music TheoryNEHian
7th mode:
Scale 1567
Scale 1567: JOBian, Ian Ring Music TheoryJOBian


The prime form of this scale is Scale 223

Scale 223Scale 223: BIZian, Ian Ring Music TheoryBIZian


The heptatonic modal family [2831, 3463, 3779, 3937, 251, 2173, 1567] (Forte: 7-4) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [79, 961, 2087, 3091, 3593] (Forte: 5-4)


The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 2831 is 3611

Scale 3611Scale 3611: WORian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWORian


Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 2831 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 3611

Scale 3611Scale 3611: WORian, Ian Ring Music TheoryWORian


In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 2831       T0I <11,0> 3611
T1 <1,1> 1567      T1I <11,1> 3127
T2 <1,2> 3134      T2I <11,2> 2159
T3 <1,3> 2173      T3I <11,3> 223
T4 <1,4> 251      T4I <11,4> 446
T5 <1,5> 502      T5I <11,5> 892
T6 <1,6> 1004      T6I <11,6> 1784
T7 <1,7> 2008      T7I <11,7> 3568
T8 <1,8> 4016      T8I <11,8> 3041
T9 <1,9> 3937      T9I <11,9> 1987
T10 <1,10> 3779      T10I <11,10> 3974
T11 <1,11> 3463      T11I <11,11> 3853
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 1721      T0MI <7,0> 941
T1M <5,1> 3442      T1MI <7,1> 1882
T2M <5,2> 2789      T2MI <7,2> 3764
T3M <5,3> 1483      T3MI <7,3> 3433
T4M <5,4> 2966      T4MI <7,4> 2771
T5M <5,5> 1837      T5MI <7,5> 1447
T6M <5,6> 3674      T6MI <7,6> 2894
T7M <5,7> 3253      T7MI <7,7> 1693
T8M <5,8> 2411      T8MI <7,8> 3386
T9M <5,9> 727      T9MI <7,9> 2677
T10M <5,10> 1454      T10MI <7,10> 1259
T11M <5,11> 2908      T11MI <7,11> 2518

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

Scale 2829Scale 2829: RUPian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRUPian
Scale 2827Scale 2827: RUNian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRUNian
Scale 2823Scale 2823: RULian, Ian Ring Music TheoryRULian
Scale 2839Scale 2839: Lyptian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLyptian
Scale 2847Scale 2847: Phracryllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryPhracryllic
Scale 2863Scale 2863: Aerogyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAerogyllic
Scale 2895Scale 2895: Aeragyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryAeragyllic
Scale 2959Scale 2959: Dygyllic, Ian Ring Music TheoryDygyllic
Scale 2575Scale 2575: PUMian, Ian Ring Music TheoryPUMian
Scale 2703Scale 2703: Galian, Ian Ring Music TheoryGalian
Scale 2319Scale 2319: ODUian, Ian Ring Music TheoryODUian
Scale 3343Scale 3343: VAJian, Ian Ring Music TheoryVAJian
Scale 3855Scale 3855: Octatonic Chromatic 5, Ian Ring Music TheoryOctatonic Chromatic 5
Scale 783Scale 783: ETUian, Ian Ring Music TheoryETUian
Scale 1807Scale 1807: LARian, Ian Ring Music TheoryLARian

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by VexFlow and Lilypond, graph visualization by Graphviz, audio by TiMIDIty and FFMPEG. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages are ©2005 William Zeitler ( used with permission.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (An algorithm for spelling the pitches of any musical scale) Contact authors Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission. Contact TTO

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with the Carnatic ragas.